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Ділова іноземна мова (англійська)
Дата публикации: 09.10.2019 06:52
Карта самостійної роботи студента
з науки «Ділова іноземна мова (англійська)»
для студентів напряму підготовки (спеціальності) 6.030503 «Міжнародна економіка»
освітньо-кваліфікаційного рівня бакалавр
V семестр III курс
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* За рішенням кафедри студентам, які брали участь у позанавчальній науковій діяльності — участь у конференції, підготовці наукових публікацій тощо — можуть присуджуватись додаткові бали за поточну успішність, але не більше 10 балів.
WHAT IS MARKETING?
Marketing has long been considered one of the basic functions of business organizations. More recently it has been argued that it is the central function, to which the other departments must be all subservient.
Today's central problem facing business is not a shortage of goods but a shortage of customers. Most of the world's industries can produce far more goods than the world's consumers can buy. Marketing is the company's customer manufacturing department.
Marketing is too often confused with selling. But they are almost opposites. Selling starts only when you have a product. Marketing starts before a product exists. Marketing is the homework your company does to figure out what people need and what your company should offer. Marketing determines how to launch, price, distribute and promote your product offerings to the marketplace. Marketing then monitors the results and improves the offering over time. It also decides if and when to end an offering. The marketer's goal is to build a mutually profitable long-term relationship with its customers, not just to sell a product. Marketing is too much important to leave to the marketing department. In a truly great marketing organization
you can't tell who is in the marketing department. Everyone in the organization has to make decisions based on the impact on the customers.
Most management and marketing writers now distinguish between selling and marketing. The selling concept assumes that resisting consumers have to be persuaded by vigorous hard-selling techniques to buy non-essential goods or services. Products are sold rather than bought. The marketing concept, on the contrary, assumes that the producer's task is to find wants and fill them. In other words, you don't sell what you make, you make what will be bought. As well as satisfying existing needs marketers can also anticipate and create new ones. The markets for the Walkman, video games, personal computers and genetic engineering were largely created rather than identified.
Marketers are always looking for market opportunities - profitable possibilities of filling unsatisfied needs or creating new ones in areas in which the company is likely to enjoy an advantage, due to its competences (the things it does particularly well). Market opportunities are generally isolated by market segmentation. Once a target market has been identified, a company has to decide what goods or service to offer. This means that much of the work of marketing has been done before the final product or service comes into existence. It also means that marketing concept has to be understood throughout the company. The company must also take account of the existence of competitors, who always have to be identified, monitored and defeated in search of loyal customers.
Rather than risk launching a product or service on the basis of intuition, most companies undertake market research. They collect and analyse information about the size of a potential market, about consumers" reaction to particular product or service feature, and so on. Sales representatives, who talk to customers, are another important source of information.
Once the basic offer, e.g. a product concept, has been established, the company has to think about marketing mix: the "4 Ps" (product, place, promotion and price). Aspects to be considered in marketing products include quality, features (standard and optional), style, brand name, size, packaging, services guarantee. Place in a marketing mix includes such factors as distribution channels, locations of point of sale, transport, inventory size. Promotion groups advertising, publicity, sales promotion, and personal selling, while price includes the basic price list, discounts, the length of the payment period, possible credit terms, and so on. It is the job of the product manager or a brand manager to look for ways to increase sales by changing the marketing mix.
It must be remembered that quite apart from consumer markets (in which people buy products for direct consumption) there exists an enormous producer or industrial or business market, consisting of all the individuals and organizations that acquire goods and services that are used in the production of other goods, or in the supply of services to others. Few consumers realize that the producer market is actually larger that the consumer market, since it contains all the raw materials, manufactured parts and components that go into consumer goods, plus capital equipment such as buildings and machines, supplies such energy and pens and paper, and services ranging from cleaning to management consulting, all of which have to be marketed. There is consequently more industrial than consumer marketing, even though ordinary consumers are seldom exposed to it.
Marketing is defined by the American Marketing Association as the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.
Marketing is the business function that identifies customer needs and wants, determines which target markets the organization can serve best, and designs appropriate products, services, and programs to serve these markets. However, marketing is much more than just an isolated business function – it is a philosophy that guides the entire organization. The goal of marketing is to create customer satisfaction profitably by building value-laden relationships with important customers. The marketing department cannot accomplish this goal by itself. It must team up closely with other departments in the company and partner with other organizations throughout its entire value-delivery system to provide superior value to customers. Thus, marketing calls upon everyone in the organization to “think customer” and to do all they can to help create and deliver superior customer value and satisfaction. As Professor Stephen Burnett of Northwestern puts it, “In a truly great marketing organization, you can’t tell who’s in the marketing department. Everyone in the organization has to make decisions based on the impact on the customer”.
Although marketing is all around us and we all need to know something about it, most people are surprised to find out that marketing is so widely used. Marketing is used not only by manufacturing companies, wholesalers, and retailers but by all kinds of individuals and organizations. Lawyers, accountants, and doctors use marketing to manage demand for their services. So do hospitals, museums, and performing-arts groups. No politician can get the needed votes and no resort the needed tourists without developing and implementing marketing plans.
People at all levels of these organizations need to know how to define and segment a market and to develop need-satisfying products and services for chosen target markets. They must know how to price their offerings to make them attractive and affordable and how to choose middlemen to make their products available to customers. And they need to know how to advertise and promote products so that customers will know about and want them. Clearly, marketers need a broad range of skills in order to sense, serve, and satisfy consumer needs.
People also need to know about marketing in their roles as consumers and citizens. Because someone is always trying to sell us something, we need to recognize the methods they use. And when students enter the job market, they must conduct "marketing research" to find the best opportunities and develop the best ways to "market" themselves to prospective employers. Many students will start their careers with marketing jobs in salesforces, in retailing, in advertising, in research, or in one of a dozen other marketing areas.
What does the term marketing mean? Many people mistakenly think of marketing only as selling and promotion. And no wonder - every day, people are bombarded with television commercials, newspaper ads, direct mail, and sales calls. It seems that we cannot escape death, taxes, or selling.
Therefore, many people are surprised to learn that selling is only the tip of the marketing iceberg: It is but one of several marketing functions - and often not the most important one. If the marketer does a good job of identifying consumer needs, developing good products, and pricing, distributing, and promoting them effectively, these goods will sell very easily.
Everyone knows something about "hot" products to which consumers have flocked in droves. When Polaroid designed its Spectra camera, when Coleco first sold Cabbage Patch Dolls, and when Ford introduced its Taurus model, these manufacturers were swamped with orders. They had designed the "right" products - not "me-too" products, but ones offering new benefits. Peter Drucker, a leading management thinker, has put it this way: "The aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous. The aim is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself."
This does not mean that selling and promotion are unimportant, but rather that they are part of a larger "marketing mix" - a set of marketing tools that work together to affect the marketplace. So marketing can be defined as a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others.
The official American Marketing Association definition of marketing is:
Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives.
Note several things about this definition. First, marketing is viewed as a process of planning and executing, which suggests that marketing is a managerial process. Second, this managerial process involves conception (i.e., thinking of or deciding what idea, goods or service to market) and the pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services. Third, the managerial process is directed at creating exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives.
Marketing is part of our society. Its influence on society is more than economic. Marketing has a cultural influence on society. As a cultural phenomenon it can help shape our wants and desires. Marketing is also important to an organization because it helps that organization create successful exchange relationships with potential buyers. For this to take place, the right products must first be produced and then correctly distributed, promoted, and priced. Note that these tasks relate to our definition of marketing.
Marketing is important to each of us because it allows us to specialize. To better appreciate this, imagine a society in which each person must hunt, cook, and make his or her own clothing, shelter, and tools. Predictably, not everyone in this society would be equally proficient at all these activities. In fact, if the best hunter concentrated on hunting, the best toolmaker on making tools, and soon, then the society could create a higher level of wealth. However, this system would only work if everyone could exchange their surpluses for the goods and services they needed. By establishing a marketing system, people are given the freedom to specialize.
ASSIGNMENTS (MARKETING BASIC NOTIONS)
Ex. 1. Make up sentences of your own using the following expressions:
to break into/enter/come into/go into the market
to capture/dominate the market (in sth), the domestic/global/international/local/world market (in sth)
an active/a booming/rising/steady/strong/ expanding/mature market (for sth)
a competitive /tough market
a depressed/dull/falling/weak market
to enter/find/open up/operate in/penetrate a market
to get, bring, etc. sth to market
to boost/build/grow/increase market share
to gain/grab/take/win market share
to lose/maintain market share
Ex.2. Join the halves
Ex. 3. Read the following statements about the role of marketing and give answers to questions below:
1. Marketing is too important to be left to the marketing department. (David Packard). 2. In a truly marketing organization, you can't tell who is in the marketing department. Everyone in the organization has to make decisions based on the impact on the consumers. (Prof. Stephen Burnett). 3. The aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous. The aim is to know and understand the customers so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself. (Peter Drucker). 4. Marketing is the performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer. 5. Marketing is getting the right goods and services to the right place at the right time at the right price with the right communication and promotion. 6. Marketing is the creation and delivery of a standard of living.
Questions: 1. Which statement suggests that everybody in a company is a marketer? 2. Which statement completely discounts the importance of selling? 3. Which statement emphasizes the role of the four P^s (product, price, place, promotion)? 4, Which statement sees marketing more in a sociological role?
Ex.4. Read and translate the following definitions:
1. Маркетинг є настільки основоположним поняттям, що не може розглядатись як окрема функція... Ідеться про розгляд усієї діяльності підприємства з перспективою його кінцевого результату, а це означає — з погляду споживача. Тому компетенція та відповідальність за маркетинг мають проникнути в усі сфери підприємства.
2. Маркетинг – людська діяльність, спрямована на те, щоб за допомогою процесів обміну задовольняти потреби та бажання.
3. Концепція маркетингу вбачає головне завдання організації в з'ясуванні потреб і побажань цільових ринків та прагне до того, щоб організація, яка це виявляє, задовольняла потреби цільових ринків дієвіше та ефективніше, ніж конкуренти.
4. Маркетинг — це свідоме, орієнтоване на ринок управління підприємством у цілому або орієнтований на ринок спосіб прийняття всіх рішень на підприємстві.
5. Маркетинг означає планування, координування та контроль усіх орієнтованих на актуальні і потенційні ринки дій підприємства. Завдяки тривалому задоволенню потреб споживачів мають бути втілені в життя цілі підприємства в загальноекономічному процесі постачання товарів.
Render the text in English.
ЩО ТАКЕ МАРКЕТИНГ ?
Що ж криється під поняттям «маркетинг»? Більшість помилково ототожнює маркетинг зі збутом. І не дивно. Адже американцям постійно дошкуляють телевізійні рекламні ролики, газетні оголошення та візити торгових представників. Хтось увесь час намагається щось продати.
Тому багато хто дивується, дізнавшись, що збут – далеко не найважливіший елемент маркетингу. Збут – лише верхівка маркетингового айсбергу, одна з багатьох його функцій, причому не першорядна.
Якщо суб'єкт ринку добре попрацював, щоб виявити знадоби споживачів, розробити якісні товари, установити на них відповідну ціну, налагодити систему розподілу товарів і ефективного стимулювання, то такі товари продаватимуться легко.
Один із провідних теоретиків із проблем управління, Пітер Друкер, каже про це так: «Ціль маркетингу – зробити зусилля щодо збуту непотрібними. Його мета – настільки добре пізнати і зрозуміти клієнта, що товар чи послуга будуть точно пасувати останньому і продаватимуть себе самі».
Це зовсім не означає , що зусилля зі збуту його стимулювання втрачають своє значення. Скоріше йдеться про те, що вони стають частиною більш масштабного комплексу маркетингу, тобто набору маркетингових засобів, які необхідно зв'язати один з одним, щоб домогтися максимального впливу.
Ось наше визначення маркетингу: маркетинг це вид людської діяльності, спрямований на задоволення знадоб і потреб за допомогою обміну.
THE CORE MARKETING CONCEPTS
The core marketing concepts are needs, wants, demands, products, exchange, transactions, markets.
The most basic concept underlying marketing is that of human needs. A human need is a state of felt deprivation. Human beings have many complex needs. They include basic physical needs for food, clothing, warmth, and safety; social needs for belonging and affection; and individual needs for knowledge and self-expression. These needs are not invented. They are a basic part of the human makeup.
When a need is not satisfied, a person will do one of two things- look for an object that will satisfy it or try to reduce the need. People in industrial societies may try to find or develop objects that will satisfy their desires. People in less-developed societies may try to reduce their desires and satisfy them with what is available.
A second basic concept in marketing is that of human wants – the form taken by human needs as they are shaped by culture and individual personality. A hungry person in Bah may want mangoes, suckling pig, and beans. A hungry person in the United States may want a hamburger, French fries, and a Coke. Wants are described in terms of objects that will satisfy needs. As a society evolves, the wants of its members expand. As people are exposed to more objects that arouse their interest and desire, producers try to provide more want-satisfying products and services.
But people have almost unlimited wants and limited resources. Thus, they want to choose products that provide the most satisfaction for their money. When backed by buying power, wants become demands.
Human needs, wants, and demands suggest that there are products available to satisfy them. A product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption and might satisfy a need or want. The concept of product is not limited to physical objects. Anything capable of satisfying a need can be called a product. In addition to goods and services, products include persons, places, organizations, activities, and ideas. A consumer decides which entertainers to watch on television, which places to go on a vacation, which organizations to contribute to, and which ideas to support. To the consumer, these are all products. If at times the term product does not seem to fit, we could substitute such terms as satisfier, resource, or offer. All describe something of value to someone.
Consumers view products as bundles of benefits and choose products that give them the best bundle for their money. Thus, a Ford Festiva means basic transportation, a low price, and fuel economy. A Mercedes means comfort, luxury, and status. Given their wants and resources, people choose the product whose benefits add up to the most satisfaction.
Exchange is the act of obtaining a desired object from someone by offering something in return. Exchange is only one of many ways people can obtain a desired object
Exchange is also the core concept of marketing. For an exchange to take place, several conditions must be satisfied. Of course, there must be at least two parties, and each must have something of value to the other. Each party must also want to deal with the other party; each must be free to accept or reject the other's offer. Finally, each party must be able to communicate and deliver.
These conditions simply make exchange possible. Whether exchange actually takes place depends on the parties' coming to an agreement. If they agree, we must conclude that the act of exchange has left both of them better off (or at least not worse off): After all, each was free to reject or accept the offer. In this sense, just as production creates value, exchange creates value. It gives people more consumption possibilities.
Whereas exchange is the core concept of marketing, a transaction is marketing's unit of measurement. A transaction consists of a trade of values between two parties. In a transaction, we must be able to say that A gives X to В and gets У in return. For example, you pay Sears $400 for a television set. This is a classic monetary transaction. But not all transactions involve money. In a barter transaction, you might trade your old refrigerator in return for a neighbor's secondhand television set. A barter transaction can also involve services as well as goods—for example, when a lawyer writes a will for a doctor in return for a medical exam. A transaction involves at least two things of value, conditions that are agreed upon, a time of agreement, and a place of agreement.
In the broadest sense, the marketer tries to bring about a response to some offer. And the response may be more than simply "buying" or "trading" goods and services in the narrow sense. A political candidate, for instance, wants a response called "votes," a church wants "membership," a social-action group wants "idea acceptance." Marketing consists of actions taken to obtain a desired response from a target audience toward some product, service, idea, or other object.
The concept of transactions leads to the concept of a market. A market is the set of actual and potential buyers of a product.
As the number of persons and transactions increases in a society, the number of merchants and marketplaces also increases. In advanced societies, markets need not be physical locations where buyers and sellers interact. With modern communications and transportation, a merchant can easily advertise a product on late evening television, take orders from hundreds of customers over the phone, and mail the goods to buyers on the following day without having had any physical contact with them.
A market can grow up around a product, a service, or anything else of value. For example, a labor market consists of people who are willing to offer their work in return for wages or products. In fact, various institutions, such as employment agencies and job-counseling firms, will grow up around a labor market to help it function better. The money market is another important market that emerges to meet the needs of people so that they can borrow, lend, save, and protect money. The donor market has emerged to meet the financial needs of nonprofit organizations.
Marketing means working with markets to bring about exchanges for the purpose of satisfying human needs and wants. Thus, we return to our definition of marketing as a process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want by creating and exchanging products and value with others.
Exchange processes involve work. Sellers must search for buyers, identify their needs, design good products, promote them, store and deliver them, and set prices for them. Such activities as product development, research, communication, distribution, pricing, and service are core marketing activities.
Although we normally think of marketing as being performed by sellers, buyers also perform marketing activities. Consumers do "marketing" when they search for the goods they need at prices they can afford. Company purchasing agents do "marketing" when they track down sellers and bargain for good terms. A seller's market is one in which sellers have more power and buyers must be the more active "marketers." In a buyer's market, buyers have more power and sellers have to be more active "marketers." In the early 1950s, the supply of goods began to grow faster than the demand. Most markets became buyer's markets, and marketing became identified with sellers trying to find buyers.
VOCABULARY AND COMPREHENSION TASKS
I. Match the Ukrainian and English equivalents:
II. Make sentences of your own using the following word expressions
profitable transaction, long-term agreement, mutually beneficial transaction, foreign trade transaction,
bilateral transaction, labor (man-power, employment) requirements, demand for consumer goods,
requirements for goods
III. Fill in the blanks from the words below. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
demand, n.; affection; evolve; reduce; provide (3); acquisition; consumption; consuming; involve; bargain, v. (2); support.
1. The manager _____ with the farmer for a supply of milk and butter.
2. The American Constitution was planned, the British Constitution _____.
3. This young businessman has gained _____ of his colleagues.
4. A clause in this agreement _____ that the tenant shall bear the cost of all repairs to the building.
5. Production costs have been _____ by 10 percent.
6. Mr. Smith will be a valuable _____ to the staff of their company.
7. The _____ of gas didn’t go down when the tax was raised.
8. The employee _____ that they shouldn’t have to work on Saturday afternoons.
9. Have you _____ against an oil shortage next winter?
10. This is time - _____ work, it would be difficult for you to cope with it alone.
11. The judge rejected the accusation against the defendant as it was not _____ by proofs.
12. The company is deeply _____ in debt.
13. The _____ for fuel this month exceeds the supply.
14. A modern business enterprise is often a complex system requiring a lot of capital, which is _____ by public when they buy shares in the company.
IV. Translate the following text:
ОСНОВНІ ПОНЯТТЯ МАРКЕТИНГУ
Маркетинг як наука і практична підприємницька діяльність оперує рядом понять.
Потреби — це специфічний стан людини (групи людей чи суспільства в цілому), який виникає в результаті того, що, по-перше, людина існує сама по собі як біологічна істота, по-друге, вона є частиною суспільної системи і, по-третє, взаємодіє з навколишнім середовищем, тобто суспільством, живою і неживою природою. Потреби — це суб'єктивне відчуття недостатнього задоволення, спрямоване на його зменшення чи ліквідацію. Це рушійна сила споживання, яка визначає поведінку індивіда. Потреби існують незалежно від підприємця, який намагається їх пізнати і задовольнити.
Бажання – це зовнішня форма вияву потреб. Це потреби, які набули специфічної, конкретної форми відповідно до культурного рівня і особистості індивіда. При цьому вони змінюються у різних вікових категорій.
Попит – це бажання з урахуванням наявної купівельної спроможності, тобто забезпечена грошима потреба в товарах (послугах), які реалізуються на ринку.
Товар – це все, що може задовольнити потребу або бажання і пропонується ринку з метою привертання уваги, придбання, використання чи споживання (вироби, послуги, особистості, місця, організації, види діяльності, ідеї тощо).
Обмін – це акт отримання від якогось бажаного об'єкта з пропозицією чогось натомість. Розрізняють бартерний (товар - товар) і товарно-грошовий обмін (гроші - товар чи товар - гроші).
Комерційний обмін цінностями між двома сторонами називається угодою. Угода має місце тоді, коли кожен з її учасників визнає, що вона є вигідною для нього, тобто дає якийсь позитивний результат.
Ринок – це інститут чи механізм, який об'єднує покупців і продавців товарів чи послуг, сукупність покупців і продавців які, з одного боку, намагаються і здатні купити, а з іншого - зацікавлені в продажу товарів і схильні до обміну.
Залежно від співвідношення попиту і пропонування розрізняють ринки продавців (попит на товари перевищує їх пропонування) і покупців (пропонування перевищує попит).
V. Translate the following abstract into Ukrainian
DEGREES OF INVOLVEMENT IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING
Attractive opportunities in foreign countries have led many firms into international marketing, and varying degrees of involvement are possible. We'll discuss six basic kinds of involvement: exporting, licensing, contract manufacturing, management contracting, joint venturing, and wholly-owned subsidiaries. Let's look at these possibilities.
Many companies get into international marketing just by exporting (selling some of what the firm is producing to foreign markets). Some firms start exporting just to get rid of surplus output. For others, exporting comes from a real effort to look for new opportunities.
Some firms try exporting without changing the product – or even the service or instruction manuals! As a result, some early efforts aren't very satisfying to either buyers or sellers. When Toyota first exported cars to the United States, the effort was a failure. Americans weren't at all interested in the Toyota model that sold well in Japan. Toyota tried again three years later with a new design and a new marketing mix. This second effort was a real success.
MARKETING MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHIES
Most people think of a marketing manager as someone who finds enough customers for the company's current output. But this view is too limited. Every organization has a desired level of demand for its products. At any point in time, there may be no demand, adequate demand, irregular demand, or too much demand. Marketing managers, therefore, can be concerned not only with finding and increasing demand but also with changing or even reducing it.
We define marketing management as the analysis, planning, implementation, and control of programs designed to create, build, and maintain beneficial exchanges with target buyers for the purpose of achieving organizational objectives.
What philosophy should guide marketing efforts? What weight should be given to the interests of the organization, customers, and society? Very often these interests conflict.
There are five alternative concepts under which organizations conduct their marketing activities: the production, product, selling, marketing, and societal marketing concepts.
The production concept holds that consumers will favor products that are available and highly affordable and that management should therefore focus on improving production and distribution efficiency. This concept is one of the oldest philosophies guiding sellers.
The production concept is a useful philosophy in two types of situations. The first occurs when the demand for a product exceeds the supply. Here, management should look for ways to increase production. The second situation occurs when the product's cost is too high and improved productivity is needed to bring it down. For example, Henry Ford's whole philosophy was to perfect the production of the Model T so that its cost could be reduced and more people could afford it. He joked about offering people a car of any color as long as it was black. Today, Texas Instruments (ТІ) follows this philosophy of increased production and lower costs in order to bring down prices. It won a major share of the American hand-calculator market with this philosophy. But when ТІ used the same strategy in the digital watch market, it failed. Although they were priced low, customers did not find TI's watches very attractive. In its drive to bring down prices, ТІ lost sight of something else that its customers wanted- namely, attractive, affordable digital watches.
Another major concept guiding sellers, the product concept, holds that consumers will favor products that offer the most quality, performance, and features, and that an organization should thus devote energy to making continuous product improvements. Some manufacturers believe that if they can build a better mousetrap, the world will beat a path to their door. But they are often rudely shocked. Buyers may well be looking for a solution to a mouse problem, but not necessarily for a better mousetrap. The solution might be a chemical spray, an exterminating service, or something that works better than a mousetrap. Furthermore, a better mousetrap will not sell unless the manufacturer designs, packages, and prices it attractively, places it in convenient distribution channels, brings it to the attention of people who need it, and convinces them that it is a better product.
The product concept can also lead to "marketing myopia." For instance, railroad management once thought that users wanted trains rather than transportation and overlooked the growing challenge of airlines, buses, trucks, and automobiles. Many colleges have assumed that high school graduates want a liberal arts education and have thus overlooked the increasing challenge of vocational schools.
Many organizations follow the selling concept, which holds that consumers will not buy enough of the organization's products unless it undertakes a large selling and promotion effort. The concept is typically practiced with unsought goods — those that buyers do not normally think of buying (say, encyclopedias and funeral plots). These industries must be good at tracking down prospects and selling them on product benefits.
The selling concept is also practiced in the nonprofit area. A political party, for example, will vigorously sell its candidate to voters as a fantastic person for the job. The candidate works in voting precincts from dawn to dusk, shaking hands, kissing babies, meeting donors, making speeches. Much money is spent on radio and television advertising, posters, and mailings. Candidate flaws are hidden from the public because the aim is to get the sale, not worry about consumer satisfaction afterward.
The marketing concept holds that achieving organizational goals depends on determining the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors. Surprisingly, this concept is a relatively recent business philosophy. It emerged only during the 1950-s. The marketing concept has been stated in such colorful ways as "Find a need and fill it" (Kaiser Sand & Gravel); "We do it like you'd do it" (Burger King); and "We're not satisfied until you are" (GE). J. C. Penney's motto also summarizes the marketing concept: "To do all in our power to pack the customer's dollar full of value, quality, and satisfaction."
The marketing concept viewes the consumer as the focal point of all marketing activities. Organizations that practice the marketing concept study the consumer to determine consumer's needs and wants and then organize and integrate all activities within the firm toward helping the consumer fulfill these needs and wants while simultaneously achieving organizational goals. There are three pillars to the marketing concept) (1) consumer orientation, (2) integrated or total company effort, and (3) achievement of organization goals.
The consumer orientation dimension of the marketing concept argues that a firm can be more successful if it determines what the consumer needs and wants before it decides what product to produce and/or sell.
To successfully practice the principle of consumer orientation firms need to regularly conduct marketing research. Marketing research is the systematic collection, recording, and analyzing of data that deal with the marketing of goods and services The tools of marketing research allow the firm to assess consumers' needs-wants.
Regardless of how much marketing research is conducted, no organization can be certain of consumers’ wants and needs. This is especially true with new product development or anticipatory manufacturing. For instance, Firestone Tire Company must produce snow tires in the summer for the coming fall and winter season. No matter how much research Firestone conducts it will still face some uncertainty about the weather and therefore may overproduce or underproduce snow fires for the coming season. Consequently, the role of good executive judgement in marketing decision-making cannot be ignored. Since marketing is not a precise science, good subjective judgement resulting from years of "hands on" experience is also a key to successfully implementing the marketing concept.
A second pillar of the marketing concept is the principle of integrated effort, in which departments within the organization work together toward the common goal of satisfying the customer. Integrated effort is a systems point of view, in which all departments recognize they are interdependent parts of an organization. Because they are interdependent, they must cooperate to enable the firm to achieve its objectives. Cooperation is often difficult because one department's goals may conflict with those of another department and with the organization's overall objectives.
Several types of conflicts can develop between departments within an organization. One type is the inherent conflict between low unit production costs and high consumer satisfaction. For instance, if Sony were to standardize all its television production processes to produce 8 single-size black and white television in a single style than it could achieve significantly lower costs per television produced. However, this would hurt Sony's marketing efforts because most consumers want variety and selection when purchasing a new television.
Organizational goals. The final pillar of the marketing concept states that the organization should engage in exchanges based on their potential for helping the organization achieve its goals. Organizations do not participate without expecting something in return, and what they receive should help them achieve their objectives.
The societal marketing concept holds that the organization should determine the needs, wants, and interests of target markets. It should then deliver the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors in a way that maintains or improves the consumer's and the society's well-being. The societal marketing concept is the newest of the five marketing management philosophies.
The societal marketing concept questions whether the pure marketing concept is adequate in an age of environmental problems, resource shortages, rapid population growth, worldwide inflation, and neglected social services. It asks if the firm that senses, serves, and satisfies individual wants is always doing what is best for consumers and society in the long run. According to the societal marketing concept, the pure marketing concept overlooks possible conflicts between short-run consumer wants and long-run consumer welfare.
The societal marketing concept calls upon marketers to balance three considerations in setting their marketing policies: company profits, consumer wants, and society's interests. Originally, most companies based their marketing decisions largely on short-run company profit. Eventually, they began to recognize the long-run importance of satisfying consumer wants, and the marketing concept emerged. Now many companies are beginning to think of society's interests when making their marketing decisions. Many of them have made large sales and profit gains by practicing the societal marketing concept.
VOCABULARY AND COMPREHENSION TASKS
I. Fill in the blanks from the words below.
neglect; hold (3); implement; favour (3); delivery (2); challenge; assess; guide.
1. Cheques should be drawn in _____ of the Society, not in _____ of the Treasurer.
2. The new method has been successfully _____.
3. The owner of the company does not _____ himself responsible for the business debts.
4. When can you take _____ of the new car?
5. Damages were _____ at $100.
6. This barrel _____ 25 litres.
7. The exchange rate is in their _____.
8. The company met the _____ of their rivals and started producing new equipment.
9. The speaker _____ his audience spellbound.
10. The employee lost his job because he _____ his duties.
11. The activities of the enterprise should be _____ by the consumer demands.
12. The firm guarantees prompt _____ of goods.
II. Match the Ukrainian and English equivalents and make sentences of your own using these word expressions:
III. Translate into English:
Роберт Кейз, колишній віце-президент американського концерну з виробництва харчових продуктів. «Рillsbury Co» (виробництво пекарських виробів) охарактеризував у статті спосіб мислення для свого підприємства в різних фазах розвитку.
Орієнтація на виробництво:
«Ми є кваліфікованими виробниками борошна. Благословенні поставками найліпшої південноамериканської пшениці, дешевою енергією гідроелектростанцій і відмінним устаткуванням, ми випускаємо борошно найвищого ґатунку. Наше головне завдання — виробництво борошна найвищої якості, і, очевидно для того щоб його продати, нам необхідно брати на роботу продавців точнісінько так само, як ми зараховуємо бухгалтера для ведення нашого обліку».
Орієнтація на продаж: «Ми є виробниками борошна, які випускають для споживача окремі продукти. Нам необхідна першокласна збутова організація, котра збуватиме за вигідними цінами всі вироби, що їх ми виробляємо. Засобами реклами серед споживачів, а також ринкової інформації ми маємо підтримувати зовнішню службу. Ми прагнемо, щоб наші продавці й торговельні посередники мали всі допоміжні засоби, яких вони потребують, аби доставляти продукцію наших фабрик споживачам».
Орієнтація на маркетинг: «Ми справді мали побудувати на нашому підприємстві нову структуру управління, котра керує всіма іншими функціональними сферами від закупівлі до виробництва, від реклами і до продажу. Цією функцією був маркетинг. Наше рішення полягало в тому, щоб організувати сучасний відділ маркетингу. Цей відділ розробив критерії, які необхідні нам для вирішення — які вироби ми пропонуємо. І ці критерії були й лишаються не більш і не менш ніж критерії самого споживача. Завдання підприємства полягало насамперед не в тому, щоб випускати борошно чи різні вироби, а в тому, щоб задовольнити сьогоднішні та потенційні потреби й запити наших споживачів. Коли б ми спробували якомога простіше сформулювати нашу нову філософію за останні 10 років, то це виглядало б так: «Ми виготовляємо вироби споживачам та продаємо їх».
"Pillsbury" перебуває на початку своєї четвертої великої ери в маркетинговій революції. По суті філософію цієї четвертої ери можна сформулювати так: «Ми розвиваємось від підприємства, котре має концепцію маркетингу, до маркетинг-підприємства». Спрощуючи, зазначені тенденції розвитку можна схарактеризувати так:
Орієнтація на виробництво (ринок продавців)
«Виробляти скільки можна»
Орієнтація на продаж (тенденція насичення)
«Намагатися збувати те, що виробили»
Орієнтація на маркетинг (ринок покупців)
«Виробляти те, що можна збути (...)».
IV. Translate the following abstract into Ukrainian
A marketing manager may find exciting opportunities in international markets. Moreover, the same ideas we've been discussing throughout this book apply to international markets. But planning strategies for international markets can be even harder than for domestic markets. Cultural differences are more important and the other uncontrollable variables may vary more. Each foreign market may need to be treated as a separate market with its own sub-markets. Simply lumping together all people outside Canada as "foreigners" or assuming they're just like Canadian customers almost guarantees failure of countries and the policies of governments. The new catchword used to describe these changes is globalization. Accompanying this globalization of markets is a restructuring of the world's economic activities. Other countries have emerged to challenge U.S. dominance in foreign trade. Many other changes have also occurred. Implementation of a Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, the possibility of a North American free trade zone that includes Mexico, the integration of Europe, the liberalization of Eastern Europe, and the continued rise of the Asia-Pacific region all point to a continuation of global interdependence.
Globalization means increased opportunities for business as well as fiercer global competition. Businesses now have to be poised to take advantage of opportunities in places with which they're unfamiliar. Doing business abroad means dealing with different cultural norms, reacting to different economic systems, and being exposed to greater political and financial risks.
The would-be global marketer has to acquire new skills to exploit opportunities abroad. Even on their "home turf" marketers may lose the "home field" advantage if they're unprepared for foreign entry. The truly successful firms will be those capable of facing the new challenges globalization presents.
Strategic planning is deciding today what to do in the future. It sets the stage for the rest of the planning in the firm and consists of analysis and strategy. Strategic planning can be defined as the process of developing and maintaining a strategic fit between the organization's goals and capabilities and its changing marketing opportunities. It relies on developing a clear company mission, supporting objectives, a sound business portfolio, and coordinated functional strategies.
At the corporate level, the company first analyses its present position and defines its overall purpose and mission. This mission is then turned into detailed supporting objectives that guide the whole company. Next, headquarters decides what portfolio of businesses and products is best for the company and how much support to give each one. Each business and product unit must in turn develop detailed marketing and other departmental plans that support the company-wide plan. Thus, marketing planning occurs at the business-unit, product, and market levels. It supports company strategic planning with more detailed planning for specific marketing opportunities.
The first step in the strategic marketing management process is analysis. It consists of identifying the firms Strengths and Weaknesses as well as Opportunities and Threats. Note that the first letters in each of these words compose the acronym SWOT. A SWOT analysis consists of studying a firm's performance trends, resources, and capabilities to assess a firm's strengths and weaknesses, explicitly stating a firm's mission and objectives, and scanning the external environment to identify opportunities and threats facing the organization.
A firm's strengths and weaknesses can be identified and analyzed by studying performance trends, resources, and capabilities. Past performance typically is measured in financial terms, such as sales and profits. Profits act as prophets, in a sense. For example, yearly increases in profits are a sign of strength, while a steady decline in profits indicates that the firm has a problem. Current resources and capabilities also help to determine a firm's strengths and weaknesses. Resources and capabilities refer to various things; special talents (i.e., the company has one of the most creative advertising departments In the country), areas of expertise (i.e., the company is a beer producer and is the industry leader in developing new brewery technologies), unique assets (i.e. the company holds 12 patents on new products or has $ 50 million in available cash), or any other advantage that can be drawn on for support (i.e. a pharmaceutical company may have excellent working relationships with retail druggists).
Opportunities and threats can be identified by stating the organization's mission and objectives and engaging in the process of environmental scanning.
The marketer wants to identify market opportunities that exist because there is an unmet or unsatisfied need or want in the marketplace and for which the firm has an interest in and capability to satisfy. At the same time the marketer should try to convert threats into opportunities. For example, toy industry marketing managers should view the decline in birth rates as an opportunity to broaden their market base to appeal to adults by developing more sophisticated toys and games.
Defining the Company Mission
What is our business? Who is the customer? What do consumers value? What will our business be? What should our business be? These simple-sounding questions are among the most difficult the company will ever have to answer. Successful companies continuously raise these questions and answer them carefully and completely.
Many organizations develop formal mission statements that answer these questions. A mission statement is a statement of the organization's purpose - what it wants to accomplish in the larger environment. A clear mission statement acts as an "invisible hand" that guides people in the organization so that they can work independently and yet collectively toward overall organizational goals.
Companies traditionally defined their business in product terms, such as "We manufacture furniture," or in technological terms, such as "We are a chemical-processing firm." But market definitions of a business are better than product or technological definitions. Products and technologies eventually become out-of-date, but basic market needs may last forever. A market-oriented mission statement defines the business in terms of satisfying basic customer needs. Thus, AT&T is in the communications business, not the telephone business. Visa defines its business not as credit cards, but as allowing customers to exchange value—to exchange such assets as cash on deposit or equity for virtually anything, anywhere in the world. And Sears's mission is not to run department stores but to provide a wide range of products and services that deliver value to middle-class, home-owning families.
Management should avoid making its mission too narrow or too broad. A leading pencil manufacturer that says it is in the communication equipment business is stating its mission too broadly. Mission statements should be specific and realistic. Many mission statements are written for public relations purposes and lack specific, workable guidelines. The statement "We want to become the leading company in this industry by producing the highest-quality products with the best service at the lowest prices" sounds good but is full of generalities and contradictions. It will not help the company make tough decisions.
Setting Company Objectives and Goals
The company's mission needs to be turned into detailed supporting objectives for each level of management. Each manager should have objectives and be responsible for reaching them.
Marketing strategies must be developed to support these marketing objectives. To increase its national market share, the company may increase its product's availability and promotion. To enter new foreign markets, the company may cut prices and target large farms abroad. These are its broad marketing strategies.
Designing the Business Portfolio
Guided by the company's mission statement and objectives, management must now plan its business portfolio. A company's business portfolio is the collection of businesses and products that make up the company. The best business portfolio is the one that best fits the company's strengths and weaknesses to opportunities in the environment. The company must (1) analyze its current business portfolio and decide which businesses should receive more, less, or no investment, and (2) develop growth strategies for adding new products or businesses to the portfolio.
Analyzing the Current Business Portfolio
The major tool in strategic planning is business portfolio analysis, whereby management evaluates the businesses making up the company. The company will want to put strong resources into its more profitable businesses and phase down or drop its weaker businesses. It can keep its portfolio of businesses up-to-date by withdrawing from declining businesses and strengthening or adding growing businesses.
Management's first step is to identify the key businesses making up the company. These can be called its strategic business units. A strategic business unit (SBU) is a unit of the company that has a separate mission and objectives and can be planned independently from other company businesses. An SBU can be a company division, a product line within a division, or sometimes a single product or brand.
The purpose of strategic planning is to find ways in which the company can best use its strengths to take advantage of attractive opportunities in the environment.
The company must determine what role each will play in the future. One of four strategies can be pursued for each SBU. The company can invest more in the business unit in order to build its share. Or it can invest just enough to hold the SBU's share at the current level. Or it can harvest the SBU, increasing its short-term cash flow by investing little or nothing in it regardless of the long-term effect. Finally, the company can divest the SBU by selling it or phasing it out and using the resources elsewhere.
Such analysis is no cure-all for finding the best strategy. But it can help management to understand the company's overall situation, to see how each business or product contributes, to assign resources to its businesses, and to orient the company for future success. When used properly, strategic planning is just one important aspect of overall strategic management, a way of thinking about how to manage a business.
VOCABULARY AND COMPREHENSION TASKS
I. Match the Ukrainian and English equivalents and make up sentences of your own:
II. Fill in the blanks from the words below. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
assets (2); assign (2); equity (2); engage (4); maintain (2); maintenance; sound.
1. The firm is _____ in the export of oil.
2. Ordinary stocks are usually described as _____, indicating that the holders are entitled to what is left of the _____ and profits, after certain claims have been met.
3. I will _____ myself to manage the business if you will _____ yourself to provide the capital.
4. With high inflation rates it is difficult to _____ prices.
5. Highly qualified specialists were _____ to the job.
6. The judge _____ that the accused is innocent of the charge.
7. _____ normally, but not invariably, carry voting power.
8. Can the company _____ that all these statements are trustworthy?
9. The data told management what _____ are at their disposal and what commitments they have to be prepared to meet.
10. _____ order is a legal order made by a court of law obliging a person to support somebody.
11. The day for the trial has already been _____.
12. “Kyiv Star”is a _____ business company, you can deal with it.
III. Read the following text and summarize it in 100 words.
THE BOSTON CONSULTING GROUP APPROACH
Using the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) approach, a company classifies all its SBUs in the growth-share matrix. On the vertical axis, market-growth rate provides a measure of market attractiveness. On the horizontal axis, market share serves as a measure of company strength in the market. By dividing the growth-share matrix in the way indicated, four types of SBUs can be distinguished:
Stars. Stars are high-growth, high-share businesses of products. They often need heavy investment to finance their rapid growth. Eventually their growth will slow down, and they will turn into cash cows.
Cash cows. Cash cows are low-growth, high-share businesses or products. These established and successful SBUs need less investment to hold their market share. Thus, they produce a lot of cash that the company uses to pay its bills and support other SBUs that need investment.
Question marks. Question marks are low-share business units in high-growth markets. They require a lot of cash to hold their share, let alone increase it. Management has to think hard about which question marks it should try to build into stars and which should be phased out.
Dogs. Dogs are low-growth, low-share businesses and products. They may generate enough cash to maintain themselves but do not promise to be a large source of cash.
The ten circles in the growth-share matrix represent a company's ten current SBUs. The company has two stars, two cash cows, three question marks, and three dogs. The areas of each circle are proportional to the SBU's dollar sales. This company is in fair shape, although not in good shape. It wants to invest in the more promising question marks to make them stars, and to maintain the stars so that they will become cash cows as their markets mature. Fortunately, it has two good-sized cash cows whose income helps finance the company's question marks, stars, and dogs. The company should take some decisive action concerning its dogs and its question marks. The picture would be worse if the company had no stars, too many dogs, or only one weak cash cow.
As time passes, SBUs change their position in the growth-share matrix. Each SBU evolves. Many SBUs start out as question marks and move into the star category if they succeed. They later become cash cows as market growth falls, then finally turn into dogs toward the end of their life cycles. The company needs to add new products and units continuously so that some of them will become stars and eventually cash cows to help finance its other SBUs.
IV. Translate into English:
Найпоширенішим допоміжним засобом стратегічного планування є портфель продукту. За дослідженням Кастеслаг (1982), уже у 1975 році 45% з 500 найбільших американських підприємств використовували метод портфеля. Водночас приріст користувачів цієї групи становив 25—30 підприємств на рік.
Основна ідея моделей портфеля полягає в тому, що різні (у багатьох підприємствах численні) продукти подаються у вигляді двовимірної матриці. Обидві осі характеризують ринкові шанси (привабливість, ріст) і здатність підприємства сприймати ринкові шанси (ресурси фірми, сучасне положення на ринку і т.д.). За допомогою приведення різноманітних торговельних просторів до єдиного поняття їх можна порівняти і розробити специфічну стратегію.
Можна також використати відому портфельну матрицю Бостонської консалтінгової групи, за якою ринкові можливості визначаються за допомогою росту ринку і здатності сприйняття можливостей відносно часток ринку.
V. Translate the following abstract into Ukrainian.
Any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. We define advertising as any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. Advertising can be traced back to the very beginnings of recorded history. Archaeologists working in the countries around the Mediterranean Sea have dug up signs announcing various events and offers. The Romans painted walls to announce gladiator fights, and the Phoenicians painted pictures promoting their wares on large rocks along parade routes. A Pompeii wall painting praised a politician and asked for votes. During the Golden Age in Greece, town criers announced the sale of cattle, crafted items, and even cosmetics. An early "singing commercial" went as follows: "For eyes that are shining, for checks like the dawn / For beauty that lasts after girlhood is gone / For prices in reason, the woman who knows / Will buy her cosmetics from Aesclyptos."
Modern advertising, however, is a far cry from these early efforts. In 1993, advertisers ran up a bill of more than $138 billion. Although advertising is used mostly by business firms, it also is used by a wide range of nonprofit organizations, professionals, and social agencies that advertise their causes to various target publics. In fact, the thirty-fourth largest advertising spender is a nonprofit organization - the U.S. government. Advertising is a good way to inform and persuade, whether the purpose is to sell Coca-Cola worldwide or to get consumers in a developing nation to drink milk or use birth control.
DEVELOPING MARKETING MIX
Once the company has decided on its positioning strategy, it is ready to begin planning the details of the marketing mix. The marketing mix is one of the major concepts in modern marketing. We define the marketing mix as the set of controllable marketing variables that the firm blends to produce the response it wants in the target market. The marketing mix consists of everything the firm can do to influence the demand for its product. The many possibilities can be collected into four groups of variables known as "the four P's": product, price, place, and promotion.
Product stands for the "goods-and-service" combination the company offers to the target market. Thus, a Ford Taurus "product" consists of nuts and bolts, spark plugs, pistons, headlights, and thousands of other parts. Ford offers several Taurus styles and dozens of optional features. The car comes fully serviced and with a comprehensive warranty that is as much a part of the product as the tailpipe.
Price stands for the amount of money customers have to pay to obtain the product. Ford calculates suggested retail prices that its dealers might charge for each Taurus. But Ford dealers rarely charge the full sticker price. Instead, they negotiate the price with each customer, offering discounts, trade-in allowances, and credit terms to adjust for the current competitive situation and to bring the price into line with the buyer's perceptions of the car's value.
Place stands for company activities that make the product available to target consumers. A product reaches customers through a channel of distribution. A channel of distribution is any series of firms (or individuals) from producer to final user or consumer.
Sometimes a channel system is quite short. It may run directly from a producer to a final user or consumer. Often it's more complex, involving many different kinds of middlemen and specialists. And if a marketing manager has several different target markets, several channels of distribution might be needed.
Ford maintains a large body of independently owned dealerships that sell the company's many different models. Ford selects its dealers carefully and supports them strongly. The dealers keep an inventory of Ford automobiles, demonstrate them to potential buyers, negotiate prices, close sales, and service cars after the sale.
Promotion stands for activities that communicate the merits of the product and persuade target customers to buy it.
Promotion includes personal selling, mass selling, and sales promotion. It's the marketing manager's job to blend these methods.
Personal selling involves direct communication between sellers and potential customers. Personal selling is usually face-to-face, but sometimes communication is over the telephone. Personal selling lets the salesperson adapt the firm's marketing mix to each potential customer. But this individual attention comes at a price. Personal selling can be very expensive. Often this personal effort has to be blended with mass selling and sales promotion.
Mass selling is communicating with large numbers of customers at the same time. The main form of mass selling is advertising (any paid form of nonpersonal presentation of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor). Publicity (any unpaid form of nonpersonal presentation of ideas, goods, or services) is another important form of mass selling.
Sales promotion refers to those promotion activities — other than advertising, publicity, and personal selling — that stimulate interest, trial, or purchase by final customers or others in the channel. This can involve use of coupons, point-of-purchase materials, samples, signs, catalogs, novelties, and circulars. Sales promotion specialists try to help the personal selling and mass selling people.
Ford spends more than $600 million each year on advertising to tell consumers about the company and its products. Dealership salespeople assist potential buyers and persuade them that Ford is the best car for them. Ford and its dealers offer special promotions — sales, cash rebates, low-financing rates — as added purchase incentives.
An effective marketing program blends all of the marketing mix elements into a coordinated program designed to achieve the company's marketing objectives by delivering value to consumers. The marketing mix constitutes the company's tactical tool kit for establishing strong positioning in target markets. However, note that the four Ps represent the sellers' view of the marketing tools available for influencing buyers. From a consumer viewpoint, each marketing tool is designed to deliver a customer benefit. One marketing expert suggests that companies should view the four Ps in terms of the customer's four Cs.
Thus, winning companies will be those that can meet customer needs economically and conveniently and with effective communication.
All four Ps are needed in a marketing mix. In fact, they should all be tied together. But is any one more important than the others? Generally speaking, the answer is no — all contribute to one whole. When a marketing mix is being developed, all (final) decisions about the Ps should be made at the same time. That's why the four Ps are arranged around the customer (C) in a circle — to show that they all are equally important.
Let's sum up our discussion of marketing mix planning thus far. We develop a Product to satisfy the target customers. We find a way to reach our target customers' Place. We use Promotion to tell the target customers (and middlemen) about the product that has been designed for them. And we set a Price after estimating expected customer reaction to the total offering and the costs of getting it to them.
VOCABULARY AND COMPREHENSION TASKS
I. Match the Ukrainian and English equivalents and make up sentences of your own (10 sentences):
II. Fill in the blanks from the words below. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
allowance (3); persuade (3); promote; promotion (2); warranty (2); incentive (2); inventory (2).
1. The equipment is still under _____.
2. It is the responsibility of the marketing department to _____ and organize the sale of products to the purchaser.
3. Retailers in this country usually get tax and trade _____ from the government.
4. This newly–formed company managed to _____ everybody of their reliability.
5. Four characteristics of pure market system – economic freedom - economic _____, competitive markets, and private property – are very much in evidence in the American economy today.
6. Can the company give a _____ for these goods?
7. This company might offer you several kinds of promotional _____ on the first order.
8. They must make _____ for his youth.
9. Broadly speaking, activities such as sales _____, advertising and market research are covered by the marketing department.
10. In retailing _____ is tangible property either held for sale or to be consumed in the sale of goods.
11. We could _____ the manager out of signing this unfair contract.
12. Without private property there would be little _____ for an individual to save and accumulate capital and without capital there would be no business enterprise.
13. Advertising is aimed at conveying information to potential customers and clients, but it is also used to _____ the public to buy.
14. Large ______ lying idle in warehouses drain the resources of a retail establishment.
15. _____ includes all forms of marketing communication.
III. Complete the following sentences:
1. The marketing mix consists of …
2. An effective marketing programme blends all …
3. In addition to developing the right Product, Place, and Promotion, marketing managers must …
4. You can see that price is …
5. We develop a Product …
6. The four Ps are arranged around …
7. In setting a price, marketing managers must consider …
8. It’s important to stress that selecting a target market and developing a marketing mix …
9. A price is set after …
IV. Translate into English.
3 кінця 50-х рр. система засобів маркетингу визначається як «маркетинговий комплекс». У кінці 70-х рр. можливі елементи цього комплексу були об'єднані в чотири групи (концепція «4Р» -від початкової букви англійської назви кожного елемента, зокрема: товар, місце, просування і ціна.
Головний елемент цієї суміші — товар. Тут основними інструментами маркетингової діяльності фірми є його якість, різноманітність, зовнішній вигляд, властивості, товарні знаки, упаковка, габарити, сервіс, гарантії, можливості повернення покупцем та ін. Головним у створенні товару є знаходження і реалізація переваг для споживачів у широкому діапазоні - від упаковки до екологічної безпеки. В ідеалі товар фірми має бути унікальним на ринку.
Розподіл - це насамперед вибір раціональних каналів збуту продукції фірми. Саме вони мають зв'язувати фірму з ринком, надавати можливість реалізації її продукції. Крім того, цей блок системи засобів маркетингу потребує належних прийомів та методів створення збутового апарату, підготовки торговельних працівників, розміщення товарів у відповідних торговельних закладах, формування в кожному з них оптимального асортименту та номенклатури продукції, накопичення необхідних і достатніх її запасів, організації транспортування і зберігання тощо.
Просування має на меті створення інформаційного взаємозв'язку фірми зі своїм цільовим ринком. Тут головними інструментами маркетингу є реклама, пропаганда, стимулювання збуту та персональний продаж.
Ціноутворення полягає у підходах та методах визначення прейскурантних цін, знижок, умов платежів та кредитування покупців.
V. Translate the following abstract into Ukrainian
WHAT IS A BRAND?
Perhaps the most distinctive skill of professional marketers is their ability to create, maintain, protect, and enhance brands. A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of these intended to identify the products or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors. Thus, a brand identifies the maker or seller of a product.
A brand is a seller's promise to deliver consistently a specific set of features, benefits, and services to buyers. The best brands convey a warranty of quality. According to one marketing executive, a brand can deliver different levels of meaning:
Attributes. A brand first brings to mind certain product attributes. For example, Mercedes suggests such attributes as “well engineered”, “well built”, “durable”, “high prestige”, “fast”, “expensive, and “high resale value”. The company may use one or more of these attributes in its advertising for the car. For years, Mercedes Benz was advertised “Engineered like no other car in the world”. This provided a positioning platform for other attributes of the car.
Benefits. Customers do not buy attributes, they buy benefits. Therefore, attributes must be translated into functional and emotional benefits. For example, the attribute “durable” could be translated into the functional benefit: “I won't have to buy a new car every few years”. The attribute “expensive” might be translated into the emotional benefit: “The car makes me feel important and admired”. The attribute “well built” might be translated into the functional and emotional benefit: “I am safe in the event of an accident.”
BUSINESS ENGLISH FOR ECONOMISTS: WRITTEN AND ORAL COMMUNICATION
Part III. Unit II. Preparing a Résumé
Select a company or organization you might like to work for. Using the resources collect information about your company. On the basis of your material, write a presentation on the positive features of working there (150 words).
Part II. Unit VIII. Letters on Social Situations
LETTERS ON SOCIAL SITUATIONS
Invitations, letters of reference and introduction, letters of congratulation, appreciation, sympathy and condolence are an integral part of business correspondence. Sometimes they are called goodwill letters, and as their name suggests, they are intended to build up goodwill. They give both the writer and the recipient pleasure when the occasion arises to send good wishes, to express thanks or to remember an anniversary.
While writing such letters you should observe the conventions governing formality, be aware of the relationship of the sender and the receiver and use appropriate language.
There are many occasions on which companies write formal, semiformal or informal invitations of various kinds. There are social gatherings for the members of the staff, especially during the Christmas and New Year season, and there are also official banquets as well as other activities such as open presentations, exhibitions and fairs.
A formal invitation, usually in the form of a letter on a printed card, is written in the 3rd person. It usually has the following wording
R.S.V.P (“Repondez s’il vous plait” — “Answer, please”) is always printed on such formal invitations. The words on the left “Evening Dress” ensure that full “Evening Dress” should be worn by everyone. The words in the bottom left-hand corner indicate the type of “entertainment” provided for the guests (“Cocktails”, “Dinner”).
Other invitations are written less formally.
Any written invitation should be answered in writing too, not by phone. Replies should also follow the same style. The answer to formal invitations is also in the third person written on notepaper with the address stamped at the head, or written, but no name and address of the firm appears, neither is the salutation “Dear Sirs” used nor the ending “Yours faithfully”, There is no signature to this letter. Accepting a formal invitation would look like this:
If you are obliged to refuse the invitation, you should explain why you are unable to accept it. The wording of the last line would be: “... but regret that they are unable to accept owing to a prior engagement on that day (evening) “
Informal invitations are written and answered in the same way as other private correspondence.
Letters of congratulation, sympathy and condolence are often written by business people. Such letters can be written from the angle of business rather than personal association. An executive or a firm may have received some honour, or attained an important position, and should be congratulated.
The following phrases can be used in letters of congratulation:
• It was with great pleasure that we heard of your appointment as chairperson. Please accept our heartiest congratulations.
• Please accept our best wishes for Christmas and the New Year.
• May we congratulate you on your success (your appointment).
Letters of sympathy and condolence are usually written on the death of an executive of some company or his or her close relative. It is very difficult to write such letters and much depends on how well you know the people you are writing to. Letters of sympathy and condolence should never be written on someone else’s behalf. They should not be long and usually follow a certain pattern.
The following phrases are suitable for such letters:
• The sad news of Mr. Smith’s sudden death is something that we can still hardly believe.
• The sudden and unexpected passing of Mr. Walter Baron has created a gap in your organization which cannot be filled easily.
• We were deeply grieved to learn of the sudden death of the Chairman of your company.
• We would like to offer our sympathy to you and your family on the passing of your husband.
• Please accept our love and sympathy.
Task. Using useful phrases make up letters according to the situations.
1. Напишіть рекомендаційний лист вашому співробітнику, який працював у компанії декілька років і добре зарекомендував себе як спеціаліст із маркетингу. Він переїжджає за сімейними обставинами до іншого міста і звільняється з вашої компанії за власним бажанням.
2. Ви працюєте помічником директора компанії «Бертон і Дойл» (Burton and Doyle), яка знаходиться за адресою; 332 Bond Street, Wisconsin 5236. Ваш керівник пан Артур Бертон просить вас написати листа з привітанням Т. Менінга (T. Manning; 72 North Eden, La Crosse, Wisconsin 5268), який був визнаний як “Керівник (executive) року”.
3. Ви працюєте в компанії “Амерікан асоушіейтс”. Керівник компанії Томас Браун не був на роботі протягом кількох днів (адреса 23 Polar Street, London, WCZ;) і ви дізнаєтесь, що у нього померла дружина. Оскільки пан Браун повернеться на роботу тільки через тиждень, напишіть йому листа зі співчуттям.
4. Компанія “Ком’юніті Іншуранс” (Community Insurance), з якою ви співпрацюєте понад п’ять років, святкує десятиріччя існування. Напишіть вітального листа на адресу партнерів і подякуйте їм за плідну співпрацю (407 East Street, New York, New York 10013). Зазначте, як ви високо оцінюєте роботу компаніїі, яким важливим для вас є співробітництво з нею. Викажіть особливу подяку пану Сміту, директору компанії, за сумісну плідну роботу.
Part II. Unit II. Letters on Business Situations. Enquiries
LETTERS ON BUSINESS SITUATIONS. ENQUIRIES (INQUIRIES)
Most business transactions develop out of an initial enquiry from potential customers. They have received your company’s catalogue, read the advertisement in a newspaper or magazine, or you have been recommended to them by another customer or Trade Association. Letters of enquiry should be handled with great care because each of them could be the starting point for a long and mutually beneficial trading relationship. Mishandled, they represent a lost opportunity which may never return, and will most likely end up benefiting your competitors.
An enquiry is sent when a businessman or a firm wants some information, especially about:
The contents of an enquiry depend on three things: how well you know your supplier; whether your supplier is at home or abroad; and the type of goods you are enquiring about.
In requesting routine things it is not necessary to give a lot of information about yourself. State the enquiry in the first sentence so the reader knows exactly what information you want, or what you want to be done. Be as specific as possible. This will ensure that your letter is read by the appropriate person and focus his or her attention on your enquiry. But remember to supply your address, phone number, fax number and your e-mail. It would also be helpful if you could briefly point out any particular items.
If you are a prospective customer and would like to approach suppliers for the first time, it is useful to start the enquiry with the story about your own business, the kind of goods you need and for what purpose they are required or how you heard about the firm you are writing to. If replying to an advertisement you should first mention the journal or newspaper in which it was published and the date.
To close an enquiry usually simple polite forms such as “Thank you. Yours faithfully” are sufficient but sometimes the use of an action close is necessary to motivate the reader to reply promptly by setting a target date. If a date is not appropriate, offer some other form of motivation.
Ви б хотіли отримати брошури, що містять інформацію про ці товари, а також з’ясувати умови оплати, яким надає перевагу постачальник.
2. Ви плануєте відкрити філію Вашого банку в іншому місті, і тому Вас зацікавила продукція фірми «Clock & Watch», що була представлена на виставці, яка проходила минулого тижня у Цюріху.
Ви б хотіли придбати партію настінних годинників для обладнання офісів. Вас цікавлять знижки, а також можливість постачання виробів рівними партіями до жовтня поточного року.
Part II. Unit III. Replies, Quotations and Offers
REPLIES AND OFFERS
Replies are easier to write than requests, because contact with your audience has already been established. The letter you are answering should give you important clues about the person or company you are writing to. Study it carefully before you plan your letter. Try to establish the age, occupational status, and educational level of the writer. The paper, the quality of the typing or handwriting, the spelling and sentence structure, as well as the message of the letter will provide clues. Next, identify what the writer wants and what questions, if any, you will have to answer.
Open your letter mentioning your prospective customer’s name. Thank the writer for his or her enquiry, mention the date of his or her letter and any other references that appear.
Remember to use the words «you» and «your» in any introductory formula. Avoid statements like «We are happy to receive your letter». Your reader is not interested in your emotional state.
Dear Mr. J. Smith,
Thank you for your enquiry of January 30, 20__ in which you asked about ...
If you say «yes» to a request, you should do so enthusiastically. Since it is the answer that the reader is hoping for, you should say it immediately. It is irritating to read a long letter to find only at the end that the firm has the product or can provide the service he or she is enquiring about.
Our firm has a wide choice of clothes that will appeal to all ages and we will have no trouble in supplying them to you.
We would have no problem in turning out the 4,000 units you asked for in your enquiry.
Sometimes, it is not enough to answer your customer that you have the goods he or she enquired. The sales conscious businessman, however will take the opportunity to stimulate his correspondent’s interest in his goods and services. So mention strong points of your product, service or idea and tell them what need or needs it could fulfill and what guarantees you can offer.
We can assure you that our wristwatches are the most outstanding items on the market today and our confidence in them is supported by our one-year guarantee.
At the end of your reply thank the customer for writing to you, if you have not done it at the beginning. You should also encourage further enquiries.
We would like to thank you for writing to us and would welcome all your questions.
The reply to an enquiry may also include different quotations of prices, transport and insurance costs, discounts, terms of delivery, etc.
We can quote you a gross price, including delivery charges of $25 per 100 items. These goods are exempt from VAT.
All our prices for handbags and purses are quoted CIF London. From today on we offer a discount of 25 % for briefcases.
We allow a 3 % discount for payment within one month.
From time to time, you’ll have to write letters in which you refuse requests from writers who are expecting a good-news reply. To produce appropriate and effective letters for this situation you should follow certain steps:
1. Start with a neutral comment that indicates some form of agreement.
2. Present an explanation in a positive manner
3. Clearly state the refusal
4. End on a positive note
A letter of refusal should end on an upbeat note, leaving the reader as favourably disposed toward you as possible. After conveying the refusal, you should try to regain some of the good feelings that were lost. Even though you have turned down a request, you may be able to suggest an alternative.
We thank you for your enquiry dated ... but regret to inform you that at present we are not in a position to make you an offer for the goods required by you. Nevertheless we will revert to the matter at the end of the year.
Offers can be sent in reply to an enquiry or without a preceding one when a supplier wants to draw the attention of customers to a range of goods or to a special product or service.
Offers made in writing usually state the nature and description of the goods offered, the quality, the price, the terms of payment and the time and place of delivery.
Offers can be firm or without engagement.
A firm offer is made by the seller to one potential buyer only and usually indicates the time during which it will remain open for acceptance. If the buyer accepts the offer in full within the stipulated time, the goods are considered to have been sold to him at the price and on the terms stated in the offer.
It should be noted that there are great differences in the legislation of different countries. According to English and American law for example, a person making a firm offer has the right to revoke it at any time before it has been accepted.
According to Ukrainian law, a person making an offer is bound by it until expiration of the time stated in the offer, or when the time is not stipulated, the acceptance must be made within a reasonable time.
An offer without engagement does not bind the seller and therefore may be made to several potential buyers.
If the buyer accepts such an offer, the goods are considered to have been sold to him only when the seller, after receipt of the buyer’s acceptance, confirms having sold him the goods at the price and on the terms indicated in the offer.
Task. Write the letter from the following notes.
Taylor & Co, London EC4 thanks Guazelli Company, Sao Paolo (10th August 20__) for enquiry of 1st August 20. In accordance with the request from Guazelli Company, they enclose their latest price list and samples. Their terms of payment are: cash against invoice, should further orders follow, they are willing to allow Guazelli Company a three-month credit. They look forward to a trial order.