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Іноземна мова (за професійним спрямуванням)

Методичні рекомендації

до виконання контрольної роботи з

дисципліни «Іноземна мова (за професійним спрямуванням)»

3 курсу (5семестр)

(заочна форма навчання)

Контрольна робота № 5

 

Завдання до контрольної роботи подані у 4 варіантах. Студент обирає контрольні роботи відповідно до списку (див. отримані файли). Контрольні роботи, перевіряються викладачем лише у разі її реєстрації на кафедрі іноземної філології ННГМІ (8.1512).

Студент отримує позитивну оцінку за умови засвоєння навчального матеріалу, написання контрольної роботи, відвідування всіх практичних занять та активної участі в роботі над матеріалом під час занять.

 

Вимоги до оформлення:

  1. Обовязкова титульна сторінка
  2. Шрифт – 14, всі поля – 2 см
  3. Друкується спочатку англ. текст, потім переклад
  4. Завдання 2 виконується у стовпчик
  5. – психологія
  6. Завдання 3, спочатку українське речення, потім переклад
  7. Решта завдань відповідно до сформульованого

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Контрольна робота для студентів ІЗДН ІІІ курсу (5 семестр)

Варіант №1

 

 

І. Translate the following text into English.

 

One of the most basic forms of learning of all, and one which is shared by other animals too, is known as association learning. Association learning is sometimes called conditioning, on the grounds that it is all about producing a particular response under particular conditions. It is not really a 'thinking' type of learning at all. Instead, it is where we have learned to make an automatic response to some outside event or stimulus. That response is even controlled by the lower parts of the brain, and sometimes directly by the spinal cord, rather than by the cerebral cortex, which is part of the brain which is concerned with thinking and decisions.

The most famous examples of classical conditioning were conducted by Pavlov, in 1927. Pavlov observed that the dogs he was studying would begin to produce saliva when they saw the lab assistant bringing their food to them. This interested him, because salivation is a reflex – a response controlled by the lower part of the brain, which occurs automatically in response to an appropriate stimulus. Reflexes are basic survival responses – jerking your hand away from a hot object is also a reflex – but they are nothing to do with thinking or recognition. So the fact that the dogs salivated when they saw the lab assistant was interesting, because it suggested that they had learned to make a connection between the sight of the assistant and dinner. Pavlov reasoned that the dogs must have learned by association. In which case, they would be able to associate a different stimulus with salivation, too. He experimented by sounding a bell each time food was placed in front of the dogs. After a while, the dogs would produce saliva whenever they heard the bell, even if there was no food nearby. The dogs had become conditioned to salivate when they heard the bell.

 

(Nicky Hayes. Psychology. – Great Britain; Cox & Wyman Ltd, 1994 – 260p.)

 

Assignments

 

I.Memorize the following words and phrases:

 

to condition

привчати, використовуючи умовні рефлекси

conditioning

психологічна обробка з використанням умовних рефлексів

association learning

асоціативне навчання

spinal cord

спинний мозок

cerebral cortex

кора головного мозку

saliva

слина

to salivate

виділяти слину

salivation

слиновиділення

response

реакція

 

 

II. Suggest the Ukrainian equivalents of the words and phrases below; use them in sentences of your own:

on the ground that; to produce a particular response; survival response; jerk one’s hand away from a hot object; recognition; to produce saliva; thinking type of learning.

 

III. Translate into English:

1. Асоціативне навчання іноді називають психологічною обробкою з використанням умовних рефлексів.

2. У собак почалося слиновиділення, тому що вони навчилися встановлювати зв'язок між появою лаборанта і обідом.

 

IV. Answer the questions:

  1. What is an association learning?
  2. Give example of classical conditioning.

 

 

V. Put 5 sentences of your own in Perfect Continuous tense.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Контрольна робота для студентів ІЗДН ІІІ курсу (5 семестр)

Варіант №2

 

І. Translate the following text into English.

 

    Certainly, phobias – extreme fears which interfere with a person going about their ordinary life – seem to have a lot to do with classical conditioning. They may have been formed by a learned connection between the object and a fear response in the past – many people become frightened of spiders or wasps, for instance, because as small children they see adults responding in a frightened kind of way, and they imitate them.

Phobias are often kept alive and strengthened by the person imagining the feared object, and frightening themselves at the thought. Each time someone does this, they are strengthening the link between fear and the object, through classical conditioning. But classical conditioning can also be used to break a phobia, if it is deliberately used to make new associations with the object. One method for doing this is called systematic desensitization. In this method, the person gradually learns to relax in the presence of the object. They begin with something very indirect and non-threatening, like, say, a picture of the object, and learn to relax while looking at it. Once they can do this, they move to a slightly closer stimulus, like a realistic photograph of the object, and learn to relax again. Since you cannot relax and feel frightened at the same time, what this method does is to replace the conditioned fear response with a learned relaxation response; and by doing this, the phobia disappears.

Another approach is much more direct. The fear response is all about getting as much energy available as possible. So it is very demanding of the body's resources, and it is hard for us to keep it up for long. After a while, the physiological fear reaction dies away, and we calm down, even if we are still in the presence of the thing that we are frightened of. So another approach to treating phobias, known as implosion therapy, is simply for the person to be placed in a room with the thing that they are frightened of until the fear goes. It may sound unpleasant, but it works – and it is much quicker than desensitization methods are.

 

(Nicky Hayes. Psychology. – Great Britain: Cox & Wyman Ltd, 1994 – 260p.)

                 

Vocabulary notes

 

Conditioning -  the process by which people or animals are trained to behave in a particular way when particular things happen.

To desensitise  - to make someone react less strongly to something by making them become used to it.

 

Assignments

 

I. Memorize the following words and phrases:

 

phobia

страх, фобія

desensitisation

 

відновлення нормального психічного стану

response/reflex

умовний рефлекс

learned response

рефлекс, засвоєний у процесі навчання

to keep up

триматися на попередньому рівні

to die away

поступово зникати

to treat

лікувати

implosion therapy

«вибухова» терапія

 

 

II. Suggest the Ukrainian equivalents of the following words and phrases below; use them in sentences of your own:

to keep alive; to strengthen; to break a phobia; deliberately; to threaten; non – threatening; to be/feel/become frightened of smth.;  to calm down; physiological fear reaction/response; to interfere; feared object; the link between the fear and the object; relaxation.

 

III.  Complete the table. All the words were taken from the text:

 

Verbs

Nouns

Adjectives

interfere

 

 

form

 

 

 

connection

 

think

 

 

 

strength

 

imitate

 

 

frighten

 

 

break

 

 

 

 

relaxed

 

response

 

 

 

implosive

 

place

 

 

IV. Translate into English:

  1. Метод класичної психологічної обробки з використанням умовних рефлексів застосовується для усунення  фобій, якщо він умисно використовується для створення нових асоціацій з об’єктом, який викликає страх.

  2. Метою відновлення нормального психологічного стану допомагає замінити умовний рефлекс страху на засвоєний у процесі навчання рефлекс розслаблення.

  3. Метод «вибухової» терапії полягає в тому, що людину залишають у кімнаті з об’єктом, який викликає у неї страх, доти, доки страх не минає.

 

 V. Answer the questions:

  1. How may different phobias be formed?
  2. In what ways are phobias strengthened?
  3. Explain the meaning of the term “desensitisation”.

What other method of breaking phobias except for desensitization can you mention? What does it consist in?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Контрольна робота для студентів ІЗДН ІІІ курсу (5 семестр)

Варіант №3

 

І. Translate the following text into English.

 

The other main type of association learning is known as operant conditioning. In this type of conditioning we learn something because it is immediately followed by a pleasant effect. That pleasant effect is sometimes a direct reward. For example, a squirrel will learn to climb a pole to reach a bird-feeding tray and gain the food. Sometimes, though, the pleasant effect comes from the removal of something unpleasant. An animal might learn to press a lever in order to avoid receiving an electric shock; or a schoolgirl might do her homework purely in order to avoid getting into trouble the next day.

Reinforcement

These two types of pleasant effect are both known as reinforcement –because they reinforce, or strengthen, the behaviour that we have learned. The kind where we receive a reward is called positive reinforcement, whereas the kind where we escape from, or avoid, something unpleasant is known as negative reinforcement. Both positive and negative reinforcement have to happen immediately after the particular action which is being learned. Conditioning does not work if they happen later – if we do learn from delayed rewards, it is a different type of learning.

Sometimes, people confuse negative reinforcement and punishment. But really the two are quite different. Both positive and negative reinforcement are about training a person or animal to do something – they encourage a particular kind of behaviour. But punishment is about stopping the person or animal from doing something, not about encouraging them to do something else. It is a bit confusing, because the threat of punishment can sometimes act as negative reinforcement, but the punishment itself never does.

The psychologist who became known as the 'father' of operant conditioning, B.F. Skinner, insisted that punishment was a very bad way of training children or animals, for that matter – because all it did was to try to stop them from doing something, but it did not give them any idea of what they ought to be doing instead. Skinner believed it was better to train children using operant conditioning, because that way they were encouraged to do the right kinds of things.

 

 

 

 

Assignments

 

I. Memorize the following words and phrases:

 

phobia

страх, фобія

desensitisation

 

відновлення нормального психічного стану

response/reflex

умовний рефлекс

learned response

рефлекс, засвоєний у процесі навчання

to keep up

триматися на попередньому рівні

to die away

поступово зникати

to treat

лікувати

implosion therapy

«вибухова» терапія

operant conditioning

навчання за методом спроб та помилок

reinforcement

закріплення (умовного рефлексу, навичок через систему заохочень)

punishment

покарання

to encourage

заохочувати

to confuse

плутати

 

 

II. Suggest the  Ukrainian equivalents of the words and phrases below, use them in sentences of your own:

direct reward; delayed reward; bird-feeding tray; to avoid getting into trouble; to escape from; training smb. to do smth.; to encourage; to stop smb. from doing smth; to encourage smb. to do smth.; threat of punishment.

 

III. Complete the table:

 

Verbs

Nouns

 

behaviour

receive

 

 

punishment

encourage

 

avoid

 

insist

 

escape

 

 

 

IV. Translate into English:

1. Покарання – це поганий метод навчання дітей, тому що він полягає лише в тому, щоб утримати їх від яких-небудь дій, але цей метод не пропонує, що їм треба робити натомість.

2. Позитивне закріплення умовного рефлексу – це коли ми отримуємо винагороду після завершення певної дії.

3. Негативне закріплення умовного рефлексу – це коли ми усуваємо щось неприємне.

4. Навчання методом спроб та помилок – це такий метод психологічної обробки (з використанням умовних рефлексів), який характеризується досягненням  приємного результату.

5. Як позитивне, так і негативне закріплення умовного рефлексу трапляється негайно після вивчення певної дії.

 

V. Answer the questions:

  1. Why is punishment a bad way of training people? What alternative can be offered?
  2. Differentiate between negative reinforcement and punishment.
  3. What is operant conditioning? Differentiate between negative reinforcement and positive reinforcement.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Контрольна робота для студентів ІЗДН ІІІ курсу (5 семестр)

Варіант №4

 

І. Translate the following text into English.

 

One of the main psychologists exploring alternatives to conditioning was Albert Bandura. Bandura was particularly interested in how we learn by imitating others. Imitation is an important form of learning, because it is a kind of short-cut. If we learned everything through operant and classical conditioning, we would have to do everything by trial and error – doing it, and seeing  what the consequences are. Using imitation, we can learn much more quickly.

Bandura performed a number of studies showing how people learned through imitation, and who they were most likely to imitate. In one well-known study (Bandura and Walters 1963), young children saw someone in a playroom with a lot of toys. The person was acting aggressively towards a bobo doll — a kind of doll which rocks backwards and forwards when it is hit. Some of the children saw the scene in real life, some saw it on film, and some saw a cartoon version. After they had seen this, they were then let into the same playroom, and left to play with the toys.

After a while, the experimenters came in and removed the toys that the children were playing with. This was to make the children feel aggrieved, and frustrated, so that they would be more likely to act aggressively. Then they observed how the children acted. Those children who had not seen anyone acting aggressively did not make as many aggressive acts as those who had seen aggression being modeled. When the children's actions were analyzed more carefully, so that the researchers could tell which were specific copies of what the model had done, Bandura and Walters found that it was the real-life model which was copied most closely.

Latent learning

But the most important finding of all, at least as far as psychology was concerned, was that what children had learned from the model did not necessarily show up straight away. It remained latent, until it was needed. A child could see someone acting aggressively, and not seem to copy it at all. But later, if it was in a situation where acting aggressively looked as though it would be useful, the child would act out the behaviour it had learned from the model. Children store what they have learned, and only use it when the time seems right. This is an important finding, for two reasons. The first, of course, is what it suggests to us about the influence of violence on television. But it is also important in terms of our general understanding of how learning happens. Skinner and the other behaviourists had seen learning as an immediate change in behaviour. But Bandura showed that we can learn things even if we do not change our behaviour straight away. We can store our experience, and use it later.

 

(Nicky Hayes. Psychology. – Great Britain: Cox & Wyman Ltd, 1994 – 260p.)

 

Assignments

 

I. Memorize the following words and phrases:

 

explore

досліджувати

short-cut

короткий прямий шлях; раціональний спосіб досягнення чого-небудь

bobo doll

лялька- неваляшка

aggrieved

засмучений

frustrated

розчарований

latent

прихований; у прихованому стані; латентний

trial and error method

метод спроб і помилок

straight away

негайно

 

 

II. Suggest the Ukrainian equivalents of the words and phrases below:

to explore alternatives to conditioning; a doll which rocks backwards and forwards when it is hit; playroom; to act aggressively; at least; as far as psychology is concerned; to remain latent; to act out the behaviour; influence of violence on television; behaviourist;  to store experience.

 

III. Translate into English:

1. Діти можуть спостерігати агресивні дії інших людей і не наслідувати таку поведінку негайно.

2. Діти зберігають набутий досвід і використовують його пізніше.

3. Та модель поведінки, яку діти спостерігали, залишається в пам’яті у прихованому стані і використовується лише у відповідній ситуації.

4. Пізніше у ситуації, коли агресія вважається виправданою, дитина може продемонструвати ту модель поведінки, яку вона спостерігала.

 

IV. Answer the questions:

  1. What is learning through imitation? Give examples.
  2. What method of learning is the quickest? Why?
  3. What is latent learning?
  4. In what way can violence on television influence children?

 

V. Put 5 sentences of your own in Perfect tenses (active voice)