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Методические указания

Cultorology: Ukrainan and foreign culture 09.09.2018 16:11

Ministry of Education, Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine

Sumy State University

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3152   METHODOLOGICAL  INSTRUCTIONS

on the topic “Cultorology:

Ukrainan and foreign culture”

on Cultorology 

for foreign students  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sumy

Sumy State University

2011

 

Metodological instructions on the topic “Culturology: Ukrainian and foreign culture” / compilers: V. A. Klymenko,             N. V. Lobko. – Sumy : Sumy State University, 2011. – 90 p.

 

History Depatment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

Instruction……………………………………………………                    4

Thematic plan of lectures ……………………………………         5

Thematic plan of seminars …………………………………..         8

Theme 1. The notion of culture. Primeval Culture ………….         11

Theme 2. Culture of Ancient East (Mesopotamia, Ancient         Egypt, China, India) …………………………………………….  16

Theme 3. Culture of Ancient Greece and Rome ……………         24

Theme 4. Middle Age culture ………………………………          32

Theme 5. Renaissance ………………………………………          37

Theme 6. Baroque culture …………………………………..          44

Theme 7. The Enlightenment in Europe …………………….         50

Theme 8. Cultural process of the second half of the  XIX –  beginning of the XX century ………………………………..         55

Theme 9. Culture of the  XX century ………………………..        61

Theme 10. Culture in the second half of the XX – beginning             of the XXI  century ………………………………………….      65

Test ..........................................................................................        68

Glossary ………………………………………………………       77

Control questions …………………………………………….        87

References ……………………………………………………       89

 

Introduction

The history of foreign and Ukrainian culture is a universal property.

This course in higher education gives the opportunity to become acquainted with the cultural achievements of the world in general and the Ukrainian people in particular.

Programme of this course includes the study of the phenomenon culture, issues of cultural development from ancient civilizations to modern times, focusing on the most important achievements of culture.

Also this paper focuses on the history of Ukrainian culture, its relationship to world culture.

While studying the subject students should understand:

a) the basic laws of cultural and historical process;

b) the characteristics of world civilizations and cultures;

c) artistic styles;

d) the types and genres of art;

e) stages of development of Ukrainian culture;

f) the most important events of the Ukrainian culture;

g) the specific nature of Ukrainian culture.

 

These metodological instructions are worked out for English-speaking foreign students.

 

THEMATIC PLAN OF LECTURES

1. The Theory of Culturology (2).

1.1. Subject and Aim of the Course.

1.2. Essence and Structure of Culture.

1.3. Typology of Culture.

2. Ancient Culture (2).

2.1. Prehistory and the Birth of Civilization:

    a) Paleolithic Era;

    b) Mesolithic Era;

    c) Neolithic Era.

2.2. The Ancient Near East (2).

  1.  Ancient Africa.

  2. Ancient Egypt: Gods and Art.

  3. Mesopotamia.

  4. The Hebrews.

  5. Ancient India.

3. The Classical Legacy (2).

3.1. The Aegean Civilization.

3.2. Ancient Greece: Cultural Identity.

3.3. The Art of Etruscans.

3.4. Culture of Ancient Rome.

4. Culture of the Middle Ages (2).

4.1. Basic tendencies of the development of culture of the Middle Ages.

4.2. Western European culture.

4.3. Byzantine culture.

4.4. Culture of Eastern peoples.

4.5. Islamic Art.

5. The Renaissance (2).

5.1. The Early Renaissance.

5.2. The High Renaissance in Italy.

5.3. North Renaissance.

5.4. Reformation and its influence on Europe.

6. European Culture in the XIX century. (2).

6.1. The Baroque Style in  Western Europe.

6.2. Rococo and the XVIII century.

6.3. Neoclassicism. Romanticism.

6.4. Realism of the XIX century.

6.5. Impressionism and Post-Impressionism.

7. Culture of the XX century (2).

7.1. Modernism and its Development.

7.2. Innovation and Continuity.

7.3. National Construction.

8. Ukrainian Culture from the Middle Ages to the XIX century. (4).

8.1. Ukrainian Culture in the XV –  XVIII centuries.

8.2. Ukrainian Culture in the XIX century.

8.3. Ukrainian National Revival.

9. Ukrainian Culture in the end of the XIX –  XXI centuries. (2).

9.1. Problems of Ukrainian culture in the context of world development.

 

THEMATIC PLAN OF SEMINARS

1. Essence and structure of culture. Primeval culture. Culture of Ancient Greece (2).

1.1. The notion of culture.

1.2. Culture of Primeval Society.

1.3. Culture of Ancient East Society.

2. Culture of Ancient world (2).

2.1. The Ancient Near East:

   a) Mesopotamia;

   b) Ancient Iran;

   c) Persian Empire;

   d) Ancient Egypt.

2.2. Ancient Greece.

2.3. Ancient Rome.

3. The Middle Ages Culture (2).

3.1. Early Christian Art.

3.2. Byzantine Art.

3.3. Islamic Art.

4. The Medieval West (2).

4.1. Romanesque Art:

    a) Architecture;

    b) Sculpture;

    c) Mural Painting.

4.2. Gothic Art:

    a) Architecture;

    b) Sculpture.

5. Early Modern through the XIX century (2).

5.1. The Renaissance (2):

    a) Italian Renaissance (Giotto di Bondone; Dante; Brunelleschi, Botticelli; Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Gentile Bellini Titian);

    b) Reformation and its influence on the culture of Western Europe;

    c) sixteenth-century painting in Northern Europe ( Bosch, Pieter Brueghel the Elder, Dürer, Cranach, Hans Holbein the Younger).

5.2. The Baroque Style in Western Europe (2):

    a) Baroque painting (Bernini, Caravaggio, Rubens, Rembrandt, Velazquez);

    b) Sculpture.

5.3. Rococo and Neoclassicism (2):

    a) Rococo Age and the Enlightenment;

    b) the art of Romanticism;

    c) culture of America.

6. The Nineteenth-Century Culture. The Global Village of the XX century (2).

6.1. The Modernist Assault.

6.2. Totalitarianism and the Arts.

6.3. The Arts in the Information Age.

7. Ukrainian Culture (2).

7.1. Ukrainian culture in the XV – XVIII centuries.

7.2. Ukrainian culture of the XVIII – XIX centuries.

7.3. Culture of independent Ukraine.

Total: 20

 

THEME 1.

THE NOTION OF CULTURE. PRIMEVAL CULTURE

1. Essence and structure of culture.

2. Culture of primeval society.

3. Culture of ancient East societies.

       Basic categories and notions: Old Stone Age, mesolithic, neolithic, animism, culture, culturology, totemism, fetishism, sacral, magic, civilization.

 

1. Essence and structure of culture. The term "culture" originated from Lat. cultura — till, education, development. Definite clearness in the definition of the notion "culture" was done at the World conference on cultural policy which was held under UNESCO aegis in 1982. According to its declaration: "Culture is a complex of special material, spiritual, intellectual and emotional lineaments of society, that includes not only different arts and mode of life, fundamental of human being, valuables systems, traditions and beliefs". Speaking about the structure of phenomenon of culture it should be mentioned that there are two kinds of it: material and spiritual. But it is necessary to keep in mind, that this is a conditional division.

                Material culture is the aggregate of productive means and material commonwealth, that are created by human labour on each stage of the development of the society.

                The term "spiritual culture" is associated with the word "spirit" which means non-material beginning. Spiritual culture includes religious, intellectual, moral, legal, artistic and pedagogic cultures.

                Culture is divided into world and national one. World culture is the aggregate of world cultures, that are determined by the system of human values, which combine and develop the best lines of national cultures.

                World culture is a complex of society spiritual development, general accomplishments of peoples of all continents, races, nations. The definition of the term "national culture" should be started from the definition of the notions "nation", "ethnos". National culture is aggregate of ecological, political, domestic, ritual and moral factors. According to the type of the creator, culture can be divided into elite, folk and mass culture.

                Elite (high) culture is created by society elite. Popular culture is created by anonymous creators, it is named frequently as folklore.

Public culture is a popular culture, which is associated with public consumption, for satisfaction of people's needs. Culture civilization is not identical to notion “civilization”. The character of civilization is determined by productive relationships. Civilization is considered to be the stage of social development, which comes after barbarism and is characterized by creation of states, towns, introduction of written language, art development.

 

2. Culture of primeval society. This question deals with the general description of primeval epoch. A primeval culture is the boundary, which separates human world from animals one. According to the last data, primeval society came into existence over 2 mln years ago. Primeval culture should be considered as necessary developmental stage of any culture.

The important place is occupied by historic division into periods of primeval culture, which was offered for the first time by American ethnographer L. Morgan. He divided a primeval culture into epochs of savagery, barbarism and civilizations. A savagery epoch is divided into lower, middle, and highest grades. Lower savagery grade starts with the appearance of a man and an articulate language, middle — with the appearance of fire and fishery, highest — bow and arrows. Barbarism starts with diffusion of ceramics, mastering of agriculture and cattle-breeding, and with use of iron.

Civilization starts to with the invention of an alphabet.

                Archaeologically primeval society is divided into the following periods: Stone period which is divided into Paleolithic (“Old Stone”) Era (about 40000 – 10000 B.C.), Mesolithic Era (about 10000 – 8000 B.C.), and Neolithic Era (about 8000 – 2000 B.C.).

                By the beginning of the Paleolithic era our own subspecies, Homo Sapiens, had supplanted the earlier Neanderthal people, who left no traces of any works of art. Paleolithic society was a culture of hunters and gatherers who lived communally.

                Many paintings and carvings on the walls of caves are discovered in Europe, Africa, Australia, and North America.

            3. In Paleolithic culture a woman played an important role. She assumed a special importance: perceived as life-giver and identified with the mysterious powers of procreation, she was exalted as a Mother Earth. Perhaps the most famous Paleolithic sculpture is a small limestone statue of a woman, the Venus of Willendorf. (This little figure is called Venus after the Roman goddess of love).

       Mesolithic Era . It coincided with the end of the Ice Age and the development of a more temperate climate in about 8000 B.C. Communities started to settle around bodies of water where fishing became a major source of food. People began to cultivate cereals and vegetables.

Neolithic Era. We have the change from hunting and gathering to agriculture, and hence a less nomadic existence – contributed to the development of a new art form: monumental stone architecture megaliths (from the Greek megas, meaning “big”). Three distinctive stone structures regularly occur in these regions: menhirs (from Celtic words meaning “stone” and “hir” meaning “long”); dolmens (from the Celtic  dol  meaning “table”); and cromlechs (from the Celtic  crom  meaning “circle” and  lech  meaning “place”).

The most famous Neolithic cromlech in Western Europe is Stonehenge which was built in several stages from about 3000 to 1800 B.C.

Other Neolithic projects in Peru like Stonehenge may be helped ancient farmers determine dates for planting crops, was used for ritual celebrations, and thus for brining human needs into harmony with the rhythms of nature.

            Questions and tasks for self-control

  1. What does the term “culture” mean?
  2. What kinds of culture do you know?
  3. Who is Homo Sapiens?
  4. What is the Paleolithic Venus?
  5. What is Cave Art?

 

THEME 2. CULTURE OF ANCIENT EAST (MESOPOTAMIA, ANCIENT EGYPT, CHINA, INDIA)

  1. Ancient Africa. Egypt.
  2. Mesopotamia. Hebrews.
  3. Ancient India. China.

Basic categories and notions: polytheism, dynasty, fresco, monotheism, papyrus, Ziggurat.

1. Antient Africa. Egypt. Throughout the history of Ancient World, polytheism, the belief in many gods, prevailed. During the second millennium B.C.E., a second kind of belief system emerged among a small group of Mesopotamian people: monotheism, the belief in one and only one god. The third belief system that emerged among early civilizations was pantheism, best represented in the Hindu faith of ancient India.

Dating back to about 8000 B.C. and located on the west bank of the River Jordan in modern Israel, the Neolithic city of Jericho is one of the world’s oldest fortified settlements. One of the largest Neolithic cities (dates about 6800 – 6300 to 5500 B.C.) is Catal Hüyük (modern Turkey).

The most powerful and lasting civilization was Egypt. From about 3000 B.C., Egypt was ruled by pharaohs (kings), whose control of the land and its people was virtually absolute.

Ancient Egyptian culture is well known from hieroglyphic texts in manuscripts and on paintings, sculptures, and buildings. Hieroglyphs (from the two Greek words hieros meaning “sacred”, and glipho meaning “I carve”) are a form of picture writing as opposed to the more abstract cuneiform writing of Mesopotamia. The hieroglyphic texts have revealed a great deal about Egyptian religion and its influence on art and culture.

The most monumental expression of the Egyptian pharaoh’s power was the pyramid – his burial place and point of entry into the afterlife. Most of them were located on the western side of the Nile with the sun rising to the east across the river.

            The Giza pyramids were the most elaborate expression of the Egyptian need to ensure a continued existence after death.

            As durable and impressive as the tombs, Egyptian temples provided another way of establishing the worshiper’s relationship with the gods. Ancient Egyptian temples were considered a microcosm of the universe, and as such they contained both earthly and celestial symbolism.

            Egyptian painting and sculpture was used primarily in the service of the ruler. Walls of Egyptian tombs and temples were covered with sculpture and paintings – usually frescoes.

            The Book of Dead, a collection of funerary prayers originating as far back as 4000 B.C., guided and prepared the living for judgment.

2. Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia (from Greek mesos  meaning “middle”, and potamos meaning “river”) is thus literally the “land between the rivers”, and is bounded by the Tigris and the Euphrates. In ancient Mesopotamian religion, the bull was worshiped as the supreme male god under the name Anu. He was also the sky god, and his roar was associated with the sound of thunder. Ninhursag was the great mother goddess, who was identified with the Lady of the Mountain. Enlil was the thunder god, Ea (or Enki) – the water god, Namar (or Sin) – the moon god, Utu (later Shamash) – the sun god, and Inanna (later Ishtar) – the goddess of love, fertility, and war.

The Ziggurat, derived from an Assyrian word literally meaning “raised” or “high”, is uniquely Mesopotamian architectural form. Mesopotamians believed that each city was under the protection of a specific civic god who required  a mountain as a platform for a Shrine. Mountains in Mesopotamia were conceived of as symbolizing the earth itself, in which the powers of nature were immanent. As a symbolic mountain, the Ziggurat satisfied one of the basic requirements of sacred architecture, namely the creation of a transitional space between people and their gods.

The earliest Ziggurat dating from between 3500 and          3000 B.C., supported a Shrine, the “White Temple”.

The use of seal impressions to designate ownership contributed to the development of writing. Some time between about 3500 and 3000 B.C., abstract wedgeshaped characters began to appear on clay and stone tablets. It is called cuneiform from the Latin word cuneus, meaning “wedge”.

The Epic of Gigamesh is the first known epic poem and is preserved on cuneiform tablets from the second millennium B.C. The Epic of Gigamesh is not only the world’s first epic; it is the earliest known literary effort to come to terms with death, or nonbeing.

When the Semitic civilization of Akkad merged with  Sumerian culture, Akkadian became the dominant spoken language, and the Akkadian god Marduk replaced the Sumerian god Enlil as the national god of Mesopotamia.

Under the rule of King Hammurabi (1792 – 1750 B.C.), the city of Babylon became the capital. Hammurabi is best known for his low code, inscribed on a black basalt stele.

The Hebrews. The tribal people called by their neighbours ”Hebrews” originated in Sumer. Around 2000 B.C., they migrated westward under the leadership of Abraham of Ur and settled in Canaan along the Mediterranean Sea.

Shortly after 1300 B.C. following a traumatic period of enslavement in Egypt, The Hebrew tribes, under a dynamic leader named Moses, abandoned Egypt and headed back toward Canaan – an event that became the basis for Exodus (literally “going out”), the second book of the Hebrew Bible, called the Torach. During this period (between about 1300 and 1150 B.C.) the Hebrews forged the fundamentals of their faith: monotheism (the belief in one and only one god); a set of divine commandments for moral and spiritual conduct and a covenant fixed in laws that bound the Hebrew community to God in return for God’s protection. Hebrew monotheism called for devotion to a single Supreme Being, the God whom Moses addressed as Yahweh (or Jehovah). Unique to Hebrew monotheism was the veneration of Yahweh as the Source of ethical and spiritual life.   

3. Ancient India. China. From the Indus valley civilization of the second millennium B.C. came the most ancient of today’s world religions: Hinduism. Derived from Sanskrit (the language of India) word for the Indus River (Sindu), “Hindi” describes, in its broadest sense, not only a belief system, but a people and their culture.

India’s oldest devotional texts, the Rig Veda, “Truth is one, but the wise call it by many names”. India’s oldest devotional texts, the Vedas (literally “sacred knowledge”), are a collection of prayers, sacrificial formulas, and hymns.

The Vedas reflected the union of the native folk culture of the Indus valley and that of the invading Aryans, Sanskrit-speaking warriors who entered India after 1500 B.C. Among the chief Vedic deities were sky gods Indra and Rudra (later known as Shiva), the fire god Agni and Sun god Vishnu.

Hindu pantheism is perhaps best understood by way of the 250 prose commentaries on the Vedas known as the Upanishads. Upanishads were orally transmitted and recorded in Sanskrit between the eighth and the sixth century B.C. The Upanishads emphasize enlightenment through meditation. They formulated the concept of the single, all-pervading cosmic force called Brahman. Brahman is the Uncaused Cause and the Ultimate Reality. In every human being there resides the individual manifestation of Brahman: the self, or Atman. The fundamental teachings of Hinduism are the basis for India’s most popular religious writing: the Bhagavad-Gita (Song of God). The Bhagavad-Gita is one episode from the voluminous Indian epic poem, the Mahabharata (Great Deeds of the Bharata Clan), which recounts a ten-year-long struggle, occurring around the year 1000 B.C., for control of the Ganges valley. The world’s longest folk epic, the Mahabharata is the source of most of the poetry, drama, and art producted throughout India’s long history.

China. The great period of unity in China came about under the Qin (pronounced “Chin”), the dynasty from which the English word “China” is derived. Like the kings of ancient China, Qin rules held absolute responsibility for maintaining order and harmony.

Having defeated all rival states, in 221 B.C. the Qin prince Shi Huangdi declared himself “First Emperor”.

In the two centuries that preceded the Qin Empire, there emerged various schools of thought concerning the nature of human being, and, by extension, the ideal form of government. Mencius (371 – 289 B.C.), China’s most significant voice after Confucius, expanded Confucian concepts of government as a civilizing force and the ruler as the moral model. Mencius held that human beings are born good: they do evil only by neglect or abuse.

After Qin dynasty came next dynasty – Han. Han China established intellectual and cultural foundations that would remain in place for two thousand years and powerfully influence neighbouring Korea, Vietnam, and Japan. The Chinese regard the time of the Han Empire as their Classical Age. Han rulers restored Confucianism to China, thereby enhancing the Confucian reputation of Confucian texts and the Confucian Scholar/official.

Literature. Ancient China’s greatest historian Sima Qian (145 – 90 B.C.), who rivals both Thucydides and Livy, produced the monumental Shiji, a narrative account of Chinese history from earliest times through the lifetime of the author.

Upon Sima’s death, China’s first woman historian Ban Zhao (45 – 114), continued his court chronicle. Ban also won fame for her handbook “Lessons for Women”, which outlined the obligations and duties of the wife to her husband.

  Poetry. Chinese poetry appeared in the form of hymns and ritual songs, sung to the accompaniment of a lute or stringed instrument. Poems served as entertainments for various occasions, such as banquets, and as expressions of affection that were often exchanged as gifts.

My family has married me

in this far corner of the world,

Sent me to a strange land,

To the king of the Wu-Sun.

The technical and aesthetic achievement of the Han in the visual arts seems  have been matched in music. Musical instruments were regularly buried in the royal tombs, a practice that had begun in the Shang Era. Most old instruments – bells – the heart of what may be the world’s oldest orchestra. First notes – from China, too. The name of each of the notes is inscribed in gold on each bell. Low-relief  scenes of music-making and dance found in tomb chambers and at Han offering Shrines confirm the importance of elaborate musical entertainments in the imperial Chinese court.

Questions and tasks for self-control

  1. What is monotheism and pantheism?
  2. What do you know about “The Book of the Dead”?
  3. What can you say about Ziggurat?
  4. Speak about “Epic of Gilgamesh”.
  5. What do you know about Vedas?
  6. What does the term “Chin” mean?

 

THEME 3. CULTURE OF ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME

  1. The Ancient Greece.
  2. The Legacy of Rome.

Basic categories and notions: democracy, pantheon, sophist, amphora, acropolis, metamorphoses.

1. The Ancient Greece. Between 500 B.C. and 500 C.E., the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome have come to flowering in the Mediterranean world. The word “classical” is used in several ways. Most obviously,  classic  or classical means “top-ranking”, “enduring” or “the best of its kind”.

Between 1200 and 750 B.C., the first Greek city-states  appeared on the islands and peninsulas in the Aegean Sea, the coast of Asia Minor, at the Southern tip of Italy and Sicily. This ancient civilization called itself “Hellas” and its people “Hellenes”. During the fifth century B.C., the period was known as the Golden Age of Greece, the Hellenic city-states produced some of the finest minds in the history of culture. Following the fall of Greece in 338 B.C. and under the leadership of Alexander the Great, Hellenic culture spread throughout Asia into Far East. Well, the legacy of Greece would continue to influence the formation of Western culture. While Greek culture was so sorting its Golden Age, Rome was establishing itself as the leading city-state of the Italian peninsula. Rome’s history is often divided into two phases: the Republic (509 – 31 B.C.) and the Empire (31 B.C. – 476 C.E.). The Romans created the largest and the most powerful empire in the ancient world.

Greek Community. The Mycenaeans civilization was established on the Greek mainland nearly 1600 B.C.. Named Minoen after the legendary King Minos, this maritime civilization had flourished between 2000 and 1400 B.C.

Centered in the Palace of Minos at Knossos on the island of Crete, Minoan culture was prosperous and peace-loving. The most famous of the palace frescoes, the so-called “Bull-leaping” fresco, that shows two women and men, latter vigorously somersaulting over the back of a bull.

The Mycenaens were a militant aggressive people in contrast of the Minoans. They have built heavily fortified citadels on mainland Greece at Tiryns and Mycenae. Their warships challenged other traders for control of the eastern Mediterranean. The Mycenaens attacked Troy (“Ilion” in Greek), a commercial stronghold on the northwest coast of Asia Minor around 1200 B.C. The ten-year long war between Mycenae and Troy would provide the historical context for the two great epic poems of ancient Greeks: “The Iliad” and “The Odyssey”. These poems became the “national”, uniting Greek-speaking people by giving literary authority to their common heritage.

The Greek gods:

Zeus – King of the gods and sky.

Hera – Queen of the gods.

Athena – war, wisdom.

Aphrodite – love, beauty.

Apollo – solar light, medicine, music.

Dionysus – wine vegetation.

Demeter – agriculture, grain.

Poseidon – sea.

In 776 B.C. there were founded “regular games” in honor of the Greek gods located in Olympia, one was of the great religious centers of Greece, the festival took place at midsummer every four years, even during wartime: a sacred truce guaranteed safe conduct  for all visitors. The central event of the games was a 200-yard sprint, called the Stadion. But there were also many other contests: such as a footrace of one and a half miles, discus-throw, long-jump, wrestling, boxing, and other games that probably looked back to Minoan tradition. Winners received garlands consisting of wild olive or laurel leaves and the acclaim of Greek painters and poets.

Although women were not permitted to compete in the Olympics, they could hold games of their own.

A great deal of western theatre originated in the tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, and in the comedies of Aristophanes.

Aristotle, Plato’s most distinguished student, and tutor to Alexander the Great, stands out among the ancient Greeks for the diversity of his interests. In addition to the natural sciences such as botany, physics, and physiology, Aristotle wrote on philosophy, metaphysics, ethics, politics, logic, rhetoric, and poetry.

Painting and Pottery. The earliest recognizable style in Greek art after the migrations of 1200 – 800 B.C. is called Geometric. The lively patterns arranged on the amphora (two-handled storage jar) are typical of Geometric pottery design.

Greek vases were made of the terra cotta. The artist painted the figures in silhouette with a sharp tool by incising lines through the painted surface and exposing the orange clay below on black-figure pieces.

Sculpture. Monumental sculpture in Greece began in the Archaic period (meaning “old”). The kouros (or youth) maintains the standard Egyptian frontal pose. His left leg extends forward to no bend at knee, hips, or waist and his arms are at his sides, fists clenched and elbows turned back.

Later, the Early Classical Style (about 490 – 450 B.C.) produced radical changes in the approach of the human figure. This style developed the introduction of bronze as a medium for large-scale sculptures, which were cast by the “lost-wax” poses. The marble statue, for example, “Discobolus”  is known only as a Roman copy in marble. The bronze original was cast by the sculptor Myron (about 460 – 450 B.C.).

Architecture. The Acropolis. The Classical period in Athens is also called the Age of Pericles, after the Greek general and statesman (about 500 – 429 B.C.) who initiated the architectural projects for the Acropolis. He planned a vast rebuilding campaign to celebrate Athenian art and civilization after the devastation of Persian Wars. The Propylaea and the Parthenon were completed during his lifetime, but work on the Temple of Athena Nike and the Erechtheum was not begun until his death.

2. The Legacy of Rome.

Roman culture. After Alexander’s death in 323 B.C., Rome began its rise to power in the Mediterranean.

The Roman view of history was less mythical than the Greek. The difference between the Greek and the Roman approaches to history and politics in some sense parallels the differences were in their views of art. In Rome there were two artistic currents – the patrician, or upper class, and the plebeian. Official styles were dictated by the rulers while, popular art also flourished. In contrast of Greece, virtually no Roman artist – male or female – is identifiable by name.

While Greek art had tended toward to idealization, Roman art was generally commemorative, narrative, ad based on history rather than myth.

Architecture. Roman domestic architecture (from the Latin domus, in meaning “house”) was derived from both Etruscan and Greek antecedents, yet maintained its distinctiveness yet.

Roman architecture has two characteristic types, the forum and the basilica.

Forums are typically a square or rectangular open space, bounded on three sides by colonnades and on the fourth by a basilica. The first forum was known in Rome, the Forum Romanum, dates from the sixth century B.C.

Basilicas (from the Greek basilikos meaning “royal”) was a large roofed building, usually at one end of a forum.

Public Baths. Besides providing bathing and swimming pools, the public bath had low-cost facilities for playing ball, running, wrestling, and exercising.

The Colosseum. This building was used primarily for public spectacles.

The Pantheon is the most monumental Roman temple. It consists of two main parts – a traditional rectangular portico which is supported by massive granite Corinthian columns and a huge concrete rotunda which faced on the exterior with brick. The entire Pantheon stands on a podium with steps leading up to the portico entrance.

Sculpture. The Roman taste for realism is perhaps best illustrated in the three-dimensional portraits of Roman men and women, who was often members of the ruling class or wealthy patricians.

Literature. The Romans were masters, as well, in oratory that is the art of public speaking, and in the writing of epistles (letters). In both of these genres, the statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero excelled. He wrote more than nine hundred letters – sometimes wrote three a day to the same person – and more than one hundred speeches and essays.

Virgil is best known for “The Aeneid”. He also wrote pastoral poems, or eclogues, that glorify the natural landscape and rustic inhabitants.

Publius Ovidius Naso, or Ovid is one of Rome’s most notable poet. His narrative poem is “The Metamorphoses”. It is the vast collection of stories about Greek and Roman gods about supernatural transformation.

Quintus Haeredes Flaccus, was better known as Horace, took a critical view of life. He composed verse that pointed up the contradictions between practical realities and philosophic ideals.

Rome borrowed Hellenic models in all of the arts, but the Roman taste for realism dominated narrative relief sculpture and portrait. These genres disclose a love for literal truth that contrasts sharply with the Hellenic effort to generalize and idealize form.

     Questions and tasks for self-control:

  1. What did Hellenic civilization gain from the Minoans and Mycenaeans?
  2. How did classical Greek writers, artists and architects express the Greek value of moderation?
  3. Critical thinking: What did Cicero mean when he said: “We are servants of the law in order that we may be free”?

THEME 4. MIDDLE AGE CULTURE

  1. Basic tendencies of the Middle Age culture development.
  2. Byzantine art.
  3. Culture of East Slavs of pre-Christian period.

Basic categories and notions: pectoral, icons, Hagia Sophia, a cappella, monophonic, polyphonic, iconography.

1.Basic tendencies of the Middle Age culture development. General description of the Middle Ages. The Middle Ages are divided on three big periods: 1) the Dark Ages – the V middle of the XV century; 2) the early Middle Ages – the middle of the XI – XV century; 3) the later Middle Ages – XVI – the first half of the XVII century. It is necessary to remember, that the origin of national cultures, the formation of national languages were shaped in that period. This is an epoch with its system of cultural values, where the idea of God dominated. Christian theology was an integral system of conceptions about the Universe, the nature, the human. God was imagined as a grandiose cosmic force carrying responsibility for permanence of celestial and social spheres. Philosophy was based on Christianity. The teaching of Augustine Beatific and Foma Akvinsky were central in medieval philosophy.

The Middle Ages descended from antiquity base, on which an educational system was created. Educational and scientific centres were the universities. At the and of the XI century a role of university centres played high schools: in Paris, Palermo, Oxford. Other oldest universities in Europe were in Paris, Krakow, Cologne. In the XV century a number of universities quickly increased.

Besides secular schools and colleges were founded. The development of education brought on the demand on books, which were a great luxury. Since the XIV century paper has been used in the production of books. The N. Guttenberg’s invention of a printing machine was a great achievement.

Naturalistic sciences and geographic discoveries were developed in the XII century.

The world into which Jesus was born was ripe for religious revitalization. Roman religion focused on nature deities and civic gods who provided little in the way of personal spiritual comfort. The province of Judea, beset by religious and political factionalism, sought apocalyptic deliverance from the Roman yoke. The message preached by Jesus demanded an abiding faith in God, compassion for one’s fellow human beings, and the renunciation of material wealth. In an age when people were required to serve the state, Jesus asked that they serve God. The apostle Paul universalized Jesus’ message by preaching among non-Jews. He explained Jesus’ death as atonement for sin and anticipated eternal life for the followers of the Christos.

The religion that had begun with the teaching of Siddhartha Gautama in India swept through East Asia in the very centuries that Christianity emerged in the West. Although rooted in different traditions, the two world faiths had much in common, especially in the message of compassion, humility, and right conduct preached by their founders. Christianity and Buddhism had only limited impact in the lands in which their founders were born, but both religions gained popularity in empires that flourished at the same time: Christianity in the Roman world-state, and Buddhism under the late Han dynasty in China. With Pauline Christianity, as with Mahayana Buddhism, the belief in a Savior god, the promise of salvation for all human beings, and uncompromising moral goodness provided spiritual alternatives to the prevailing materialism of imperial Rome and Han China.

In early Christian art, the symbolic significance of the representation is often more important than its literal meaning.

Iconography, the study of subject matter and its visual imagery, is essential to an understanding of the transition from classical to Christian art. Music, literature, almost every number and combination of numbers was thought to carry allegorical meaning.

2. Byzantine art. In the churches of Byzantium, the mosaic technique reached its artistic peak. The most notable example of Byzantine architecture, Hagia Sophia (“Holy Wisdom”), the longitudinal axis of the Latin cross plan was combined with the Greek cross plan. Hagia Sophia is an evidence of the golden age of Byzantine art and architecture that took place under the emperor Justinian.

Although religious imagery was essential to the growing influence of Christianity, a fundamental disagreement concerning the role of icons (images) in divine worship led to conflict between the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox Churches. Executed in glowing colours and gold paint on small, portable panels, Byzantine icons usually featured the Virgin and Child Staring hypnotically at the worshiper in a formal, stylized manner. Early Church was careful to exclude all forms of individual expression from liturgical music. Most important music of Christian antiquity was the music of the Mass.

            On the oldest bodies of liturgical song still in everyday use, Gregorian chant stands among the great treasures of Western music. It is – like early Christian hymnody – monophonic, that is, it consists of a single line of melody sung a cappella (without instrumental accompaniment), the plainsong of early Christian era was performed by the clergy and choirs of monks rather than by members of the congregation.

     3. Culture of East Slavs of pre-Christian period. The early Middle Ages for Central and Eastern Europe is the period of the formation of big Slavic unions, the foundation and the development of Slavonic states. During the V – VI centuries two Slavonic unions – Sclavyns and Ants were formed on the territory of contemporary Ukraine. Archaeological findings indicate, that base of economy of eastern Slavs was agriculture. But cattle-breeding, hunting, and fishery also existed. Ceramics, spinning, weaving, manufacture of skin, stone, and wood products remained as household trade.

In Eastern Slavonic religion the worshipping of nature forces in various forms and clan cult are reflected brightly. It was typical for agricultural tribes.

Early Christian religion in ancient Ukrainians was heathen polytheism. Eastern Slavs believed in natural fantastic deities: mermaids, wood-goblins, nixes.

     The pantheon of heathen gods was formed. Calendar poetry is folklore, associated with seasons, ritual poetry, associated with ceremonies.

        Questions, and tasks for self-control

  1. What peculiar features of Middle Ages culture do you know?
  2. What do you know about Byzantine art?
  3. What are the peculiarities of the icon-painting of Middle Ages period?

 

THEME 5. RENAISSANCE

1. Renaissance period and new traditions in culture.

2. Italian Renaissance.

3. Reformation and its influence on culture of Western

Europe.

4. Ukrainian Renaissance.

Basic categories and notions: humanism, Reformation, anthropocentrism, ideal, nativity, basilica, mystery, choir.

1. Renaissance period and new traditions in culture. Renaissance is one of the most celebrated epochs in the history of civilization. It was a period in Europe between 1300 and 1600. The Renaissance, or “rebirth” of classicism, was the cultural hinge between medieval and modern times. Renaissance art appeared on the base of humanism. Originating in fourteenth-century Italy, and spreading northward during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, this dynamic movement shaped some of West’s most fundamental political, economic, and cultural values – values associated with the rise of nation-states, the formation of the middle class, and the advancement of classically based education and classically inspired art.

The peculiar features of Renaissance culture were its secular character, spiritual renewal, appealing to cultural antiquity legacy. Creators of Renaissance culture were people from various social strata, but its achievement in humanitarian and naturalistic sciences, literature, and art became the achievements of the whole society.

On counterpoise to feudal ideology, Renaissance philosophy focused its attention on a person, on his assertion. Philosophy of that period is represented by E. Rotterdamsky, M. Ficino, G. Bruno.

2. Italian Renaissance. During the eleventh and the twelfth centuries, Italy continued to be accessible to Byzantine influences originating in Greece and Turkey through its eastern ports, particularly Venice and Ravenna.

The most famous of the early Italian humanists was the poet and scholar Francesco Petrarch (1304 – 1374). Often called the Father of Humanism, Petrarch devoted his life to the recovery, copying, and editing of Latin manuscripts. His favourite poetic form was the sonnet, a fourteen-lined lyric poem.

Architecture. The revival of classical architecture was inaugurated by the architect, sculptor, and theorist Filippo Brunelleschi. He won a civic competition for the design of the dome of Florence Cathedral. Brunelleschi was among the first architects of the  Renaissance to defend the principles of symmetry and clarity in architectural design.

The leading painter, who exemplified the Renaissance interest in pagan subject matter, was Sandro Botticelli. “The Birth of Venus” is one of a series of mythological pictures.

A division into periods of Italian Renaissance takes very important place. Three names are sufficient for comprehension of world sense of Italian Renaissance: Leonardo da Vinci, Rafael, Michelangelo. Such artists as Giorgione, Tintoretto, Titian, Veronese made considerable input in the development of painting in that period.

Leonardo da Vinci (1452 – 1519) is the best artist and scientist of the Renaissance. A diligent investigator of natural phenomena, Leonardo, examined the anatomical and organic functions of plants, animals, and human beings. He also studied the properties of wind and water and invented several hundreds of ingenious mechanical devices, including an armored tank and a flying machine most of which never left the notebook stage. His great painting is “The Last Supper”.

“Mona Lisa”. The painting that epitomizes Leonardo’s synthesis of nature, architecture, human form, geometry, and character is Mona Lisa.

Michelangelo (Michelangelo di Buonarroti Simoni) (1475 – 1564) was an architect, painter, writer, although he thought of himself primarily as a sculptor. He established his reputation in Florence at the age of twenty-seven, when he undertook to carve a freestanding larger-than-life statue of the biblical David from a gigantic block of marble that no other sculptor had dared to tackle.

Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio) was born eight years after Michelangelo but died forty-four years before him. During his short life (1483 – 1520) Raphael came to embody the classical character of High Renaissance Style.

At the beginning of his career, Raphael worked in Florence, where he painted many versions of “The Virgin with Christ-child”. The “Madonna of the Meadows” of 1505 is a good example of his clear, straightforward, classicizing style. At the age of twenty-six, Raphael went to Rome, where, in addition to religious works, he painted portraits and mythological pictures.

3. Reformation and its influence on culture of Western Europe. In the transition from medieval to early modern times, technology played a crucial role. Gunpowder, the light cannon, and other military devices made warfare more impersonal and ultimately more deadly. At the same time, Western advances in navigation, shipbuilding, and maritime instrumentation brought Europe into a dominant position in world exploration and colonization.

The new print technology broadcast an old message of religious protest and reform. For two centuries, critics had attacked the wealth, worthiness, and unchecked corruption of the Church of Rome.

During the sixteenth century, papal extravagance and immorality reached new heights, and Church reform became an urgent public issue. In the territories of Germany, loosely united under the leadership of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (1500-1558), the voices of protest were more strident than any elsewhere in Europe. In 1505, Martin Luther (1483 – 1546), the son of the rural coal miner, abandoned his legal studies to become an Augustinian monk. Thereafter, as a doctor of theology at the University of Wittenberg, Luther spoke out against the Church. In 1517, in pointed criticism of Church abuses, Luther posted on the door of the cathedral of Wittenberg a list of ninety-five issues he intended for dispute with the leaders of the Church of Rome. Luther did not want to destroy Catholicism, but rather to reform it. He attacked monasticism clerical celibacy, ultimately marrying, a former nun and fathering six children. With the aid of the printing press, his “protestant” sermons circulated throughout Europe. In the independent city of Geneva, Switzerland, the French theologian John Calvin (1509 – 1564), set up a government in which elected officials, using the Bible as the supreme law, ruled the community.

On nearby Zürich, the humanist scholar Ulrich Zwingli (1484 – 1531) fathered the Anabaptist Sect.

The austerity of the Protestant reform cast its long shadow upon Church art. Secular subject matter provided abundant inspiration for Northern artists. Portraiture, a favourite genre of the pre-Reformation master Jan van Eyck, remained popular among such sixteenth-century artists as Albrecht Dürer, Lucas Cranach the Elder, and Hans Holbein the Younger, three of the greatest draftsmen of the Renaissance.

Literature. The Scholarly treatises and letters of Desiderius Erasmus won him the respect of scholars throughout Europe: but his single most popular work was “The Praise of Folly”, a satiric oration attacking a wide variety of human foibles, including greed, intellectual pomposity, and pride. Other humanist, Erasmus’ lifelong friend and colleague Thomas More, wrote “Utopia”. In Spain, Miguel de Cervantes wrote “Don Quixote”, a novel that satirizes the outworn values of the Middle Ages as personified in a legendary Spanish hero. The French humanist Francois Rabelais wrote “Gargantua and Pantagruel”, an irreverent satire filled with biting allusions to contemporary institutions and customs.

The literary giant of the age is William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616). He lived during the Golden Age of England under the rule of Elizabeth I. He wrote 37 plays – comedies, tragedies, romances, and histories – as well as 154 sonnets and other poems. His comedies, such as “The Taming of the Shrew”, “Much Ado About Nothing”, and tragedies as “Hamlet”, “Macbeth”, “Othello”, “King Lear” were the products of his mature career – that Shakespeare achieved the concentration of thought and language that have made him the greatest English playwright of all time.

4. Ukrainian Renaissance. Ukrainian cultural eminence started at the end of the XV – the first half of the XVI centuries due to the diffusion of humanistic ideas.

The Development of Ukrainian Renaissance humanism is divided into 3 stages:

  1.  the middle Renaissance ( XVI century);
  2.  the second half of the XVI – XVII centuries;
  3.  the second half of the XVII – XVIII centuries.

Founders of humanistic culture in Ukraine were Yu. Gorhobych, P. Rusyn, S. Orihovsky.

In the XIV- the first half of the XVII century a school theatre, a custom to go around with puppet shows appeared.

In the conditions of cultural eminence civil and cult construction reached a very high level. Church architecture is represented by three-partial and five-partial stone churches. In many towns the defensive fortifications were built: wooden and stone castles, billows, ditches, and walls.

Sculptural reliefs, fretwork appeared on portals, in interiors of Renaissance houses, palaces, churches, iconostasis, and sepulchral sculpture appeared. Religious images on artists' pictures gradually lost former stability and frequently had features of simple people.

       In the last decade of the XVI century the information about Ukraine was spread in the West.

Questions and tasks for self-control

  1. Which of the artists are called “titans” of Renaissance period?
  2. Analyze the peculiarities of Ukrainian Renaissance culture.
  3. What significance has the Renaissance period in the world

                culture?

 

THEME 6. BAROQUE CULTURE

  1. Baroque and rococo.
  2. The Age of Enlightenment. Neoclassicism.
  3. Ukrainian culture of the XVIII – the first half of the

XIX century.

Basic categories and notions: gallery, classicism, sentimentalism, empire style, elegy, materialism, education, play, satire.

1. Baroque and rococo. The term “baroque” is applied to diverse styles, which highlight the approximate character of art historical categories. Baroque art began in Italy, particularly in Rome. In the course of the baroque period, however, Paris took over as the artistic centre of Europe, a position it retained until the World War II.

Architecture. The official architect of St. Peter’s was Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598 – 1680). He designed erected the bronze baldacchino, or canopy, over the high altar above St. Peter’s tomb.

In France the architecture was elegant, ordered and rational, recalling the classical esthetic. The example of it is Versailles, a small town about 15 miles (24 km) southwest of Paris, the vast royal household.

In England the exponent by Baroque style was Sir Christopher Wren (1632 – 1723), which took part in redesigning of fifty-one churches that had burned down, and rebuilt of the Protestant Church of England.

Sculpture. The most important sculptor of the Baroque style in Rome was Bernini. His over-life-size sculpture “Pluto and Proserpina” was an example of his talent as a sculptor.

Painting. The leading painter in Rome was Michelangelo. Merisi da Caravaggio (1571 – 1610). His credo was in depicting subjects and themes of a homoerotic nature.

The Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens (1577 – 1640) was one of the most famous painters of the XVII century. His mythological paintings (“Venus and Adonis”) also celebrate the sensual side of life.

Rembrandt van Rijn (1606 – 1669) falls into the general category of Baroque.

Diego Velazquez (1599 – 1660) was the leading Baroque artist in the XVII century in Post-Reformation Spain.

Rococo. The most distinctive style of the XVIII century is called Rococo, a  French word rocaille and coquille (meaning “rock” and “shell” – the formations were used to decorate Baroque gardens).

The XVIII century  was called the “Age of Enlightenment”. This complex concept derives from the philosophical ideas, which were translated into political movements. The rationalism of Descartes – Cogito, ergo sum (“I think, therefore I am”) – in the previous century continued to appeal to  the same European and American thinkers. In England, John Locke advanced the notion of “empiricism”, the belief that something exists only when it can be seen and experienced.

In political philosophy, the concept of a secular “Social contract” developed. It was based on the principle that governments ruled only by the consent of the people. This “contract” could be broken if a government abused its power. The practical effect of this reasoning can be seen in Thomas Jefferson’s “Bill of Rights” and “the American Constitution”.

Rococo Painting. The leading Rococo painter, Antonio Watteau (1684 – 1721), was born in Flanders, but spent most of his professional life in France. (The Dance is his best known painting).

Neoclassicism. During the late XVIII century and early XIX century in Western Europe, several styles competed for primacy. Paris had become the undisputed centre of the Western art world, although Rome was still influential. Artistically, the “true style”, later called the neoclassical style, was a reaction against the levity of rococo. Although neoclassicism originated during the rule of Louis XIV, it reign was later adopted by the leaders of the French Revolution, and  became the style  closely associated with the revolutionary movements of the period.

The leading neoclassical painter, Jacques-Louis David (1748 – 1825), appealed to the republican sentiments that derived from Ancient Rome. His “Oath of the “Horatii” was first exhibited in 1785. David was elected to the National Convention and he voted to send Louis XVI to the guillotine. When Robespierre fell, David was imprisoned twice but regained favor under Napoleon. After Napoleon’s exile, David left France and died in Brussels in 1825.

3. Ukrainian culture of the XVIII – the first half of the XIX century. To understand this epoch better it is necessary to start with the description of the historic period. These historic peculiarities influenced on the development of education. On the Right-bank Ukraine the union schools originated. They were state schools owned by Vasylian order. On the Left-bank and rural Ukraine only orthodox schools existed. Kyiv-Mogyla college had a great significance and became Kyiv Academy in 1701.

The remarkable scientists, writers, and artists such as            L. Baranovych, I. Halyatovsky, F. Prokopovych, S. Polotsky worked there. Academy graduates did their endeavours for eminence of education and culture in other Slavonic states, first of all in Russia.

The creative activity of H. Skovoroda had a great significance for the development of Ukrainian culture. He wrote his works as dialogues, in which anthropologism is preached as the base of philosophical conception.

Literature was greatly developed. The polemic genres: treatises, dialogues, public debates, pamphlets – played a very important role in literature. The puppet theatre – vertep developed greatly in that period too. The Ukrainian language and songs entered scene due to this genre. Folk theatre-show, serf theatre appeared. Kharkiv theatre, which was founded in 1798, was the first professional theatre in Ukraine.

Music was developed under the influence of theatrical art. Family-genre and lyric songs, ritual, folk dancings-snowstorms, hopaks, and pittances were developed.

A professional music was represented by the creative activity of famous composers: D. Bortnyansky, M. Berezovsky, and             A. Vendel.

Baroque in Ukraine became a spiritual trend which involved all spheres of cultural activity and came into the history of world art under the name of Ukrainian Baroque.

The creators of Baroque architecture were I. Hryhorovych-Barsky (Samson fountain, etc.) in Lviv, S. Kovnir (Kovnir corps). The remarkable Ukrainian architects F. Starchenko and A. Zernikov worked together.

B. Rastrelli (Andriivska's church, Mariinsky palace), B Meretyn (St. Yur's cathedral in Lviv) made a great contribution to Baroque architecture.

Imitative art of this epoch was represented by iconostasis, which was distinguished by grandiosity, splendour, and riches.

In this period Ukrainian portraiture started to develop. Portrait, as genre of secular art, had a national peculiarity: attached to all its vitality in the XVII century it stored a close tie with iconpainting. D. Levytsky, V. Borovykovsky, F. Senkovych  worked in this genre.

Questions and tasks for self-control

  1.  How was baroque style reflected in Western European culture?
  2. What famous architects of baroque style do you know?
  3. What artistic styles of New Time do you know?
  4. Name peculiar features of Ukrainian baroque.

 

THEME 7. THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE

  1. Romanticism and realism.
  2. Impressionism and post-impressionism of the XIX century.
  3. Development of Ukrainian culture in the XIX century.

Basic categories and notions: empire style, eclecticism, elegy, materialism, play, satire, naturalism, cubism.

1. Romanticism and realism. The romantic movement like neoclassicism, encompassed both western Europe and the United States. The term “romantic” is derived from the Romance languages (French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese), and more particularly from the medieval tales of chivalry and adventure written in those languages, such as the Chanson de Roland (Song of Roland). The romantic esthetic of “long ago” and “far away” is conveyed in works with locales and settings that indicate the passage of time (for example, ruined buildings or dilapidated sculptures). To the extent that neoclassicism expresses a nostalgia for the classical past, it may be said to have “romantic” quality too.

Painter. Francisco de Goya (1746 – 1828), the leading Spanish painter, was attracted by several Romantic themes. His compelling images reflect his remarkable psychological insights. In 1799 Goya published Los Caprichos (“The Caprices”), a series of etchings combined with the new medium of aquatint.

Romanticism focused on people’s longing to return to nature. Such themes led to an expansion of landscape painting in the XIX century.

In England, the two greatest romantic landscape painters were John Constable and Joseph Mallord William Turner.

French great artists of those times were K. D. Friederich,      T. Gericault, E. Delacroix, etc.

Marxism appeared in the XIX century. This century is a time of general personal interest in historic science. Almost in every country historic societies were founded, the museums were opened, the magazines were published. A complex of humanitarian scientific disciplines was formed, economic and social sciences were developed.

T. Hofman, G. Byron, V. Hugo, G. Sand, W. Scott were main representatives of romanticism in European literature. Romanticism in music was formed under the influence of literary romanticism in 1820. Composers who created in romantic style were K. Weber,      R. Wagner, F. List, F. Chopin. They created real musical cult.

Realism was established in culture since 1830s. There were many causes for establishing of realism. A desire to return to truth of life, to usual feelings of usual people appeared. Stendhal,                 P. Beranger, O. Balzac, P. Merimee, G. Flaubert, J. Galsworthy were representatives of realism in literature. Realism in music: the most prominent were the Italian composers: D. Verdi, D. Puccini,             P. Mascagni. In Austria at the beginning, of the XIX century Salzburg along with Vienna became the musical centre. There, besides classical opera, Viennese operetta was founded.

2. Impressionism and post-impressionism of the XIX century. The Impressionist Style evolved in Paris in the 1860s and continued into the early XX century. Unlike realism, impressionism responded rarely, if ever, to political events. The impressionist painters preferred genre subjects, especially scenes of contemporary leisure activities and entertainment, and landscape. The impressionists were also concerned with direct observation, especially of the natural properties of light. They held eight exhibitions of their work between 1874 and 1886.

Edouard Manet (1832 – 1883) worked in Paris. This painter formed a transition from realism to impressionism. His “Bar at the Folies Bergere”, the customer is cut by the frame, as is the trapeze artist, whose legs and feet are visible in the upper left corner of the picture plan.

Edgar Degas (1834 – 1917) also represents a “Slice of life”, the boundaries of which are determined by the apparently arbitrary placing of the frame.

The work of Claud Monet (1840 – 1926) more than that of any other XIX century artist embodied the formal principles of impressionism.

Auguste Renoir is an impressionist painter too. He has combined traditional thematic content with a new formal idiom.

Camille Pissarro was influenced by photography, and by the photographer’s characteristic experimentation with different viewpoints.

Winslow Homer, an American painter, is regarded as transitional between realism and impressionism. Another important American painter Maurice Prendergast clearly evolved from Impressionism.

Sculpture. The acknowledged giant of the XIX century sculptor was Auguste Rodin.

Auguste Rodin was the most innovative sculptor of his time, and was a force for change compared with the ongoing tradition of the Academy. A comparison with the plaster and bronze versions of Rodin’s Balzac.

Post-Impressionism (meaning “after impressionism”), is the term used to designate the work of a group of important late XIX century painters. Like impressionists, post-impressionists were drawn to bright colour and visible, distinctive brushstrokes. Most powerful impact on the development of western painting was Paul Cezanne.

The greatest Dutch artist since the Baroque period was Vincent van Gogh.

Symbolism. The symbolists concentrated their attention on artistic expression of things in themselves through symbols and ideas. Most popular painters were E. Munch, the Norwegian artist, and H. Rousseau.

Naturalistic trend in art was not pure. It is represented in literature by E. Zola, A. Holz, brothers Goncourt. Poets Charles Baudelaire, Stephane Mallarme, Paul Verlaine, American writer Edgar Allen Poe and Swedish philosopher Emanuel Swedenborg. Their literature of decadence, disintegration, and the macabre shares many qualities with symbolist painting.

3. Development of Ukrainian culture in the XIX century. The prominent persons of modernistic period of  Ukrainian culture were M. Hrushevsky and I. Franko. Ukrainian painters are               K. Krutovsky, K. Konstandi, O. Lytovchenko, M. Yaroshenko. Ukrainian national landscape school was founded: V. Orlovsky,         I. Pohytonov. O. Murashko was a well-known portrait-painter.

Ukrainian domestic theatre of M. Kropyvnytsky,                  M. Sadovsky, M. Starytsky was over the hill.

L. Kurbas was the founder of a theatre of a new type.

The creative activity of M. Lysenko, Ya. Stepovy,                  S. Lyudkevych, O. Koshytsya, M. Leontovych, O. Nyzhankivsky,               P. Stetsenko. Artistic school of Ukrainian architecture was formed in this period by P. Alyoshyn, O. Beketov, V. Horodetsky, O. Verbytsky. The formation of style “modern” took place in the first decade of the XX century in Ukrainian architecture. It was connected with desire to create synthetic style of all kinds of art.

Questions and tasks for self-control

  1. Define peculiar features of romanticism.
  2. How was realism reflected in the European culture?
  3. What is impressionism?
  4. Speak about general features of Ukrainian modernism.

 

THEME 8. CULTURAL PROCESS OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY– BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY.

  1. Fauvism and expressionism.
  2. Cubism. Surrealism.
  3. Dadaism.
  4. Ukrainian culture in interwar period.

Basic categories and notions: modernism, international, nihilism, fauvism, expressionism, cubism, surrealism, dadaism.

1. Fauvism and expressionism. In the twentieth century styles came and went, often merging into one another. In half past of century, Paris had been the centre of the western art world. Just as the impressionists had expanded the range of subject matter in the XIX century, so the XX century artists turned to entirely new subjects, including everyday objects. They also began to use new materials, such as plastics, which resulted from advances in technology. The very idea of “newness” became the basis of modernism. The so-called “avant-garde” (or leaders) became a prominent force in western art.

In painting, two figures dominate the first half of the XX century, Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973) and Henry Matisse (1869 – 1954). As artists, however, they were quite distinct.

Fauvism. In 1905 a new generation of artists exhibited their paintings in Paris. One critic, who noticed a single traditional sculpture in the room, exclaimed: “Donatello chez les fauves!” (“Donatello among the wild beasts!”), because the colour and the movement of the paintings reminded him of the jungle. His term suck, and the style of those pictures is still referred to as “Fauve”.

The leading Fauve was H. Matisse.

In Germany, the artists who, like the Fauves, were most interested in the expressive possibilities of colour – as derived from Post-Impressionism – were called expressionists. They formed groups that outlasted the Fauves in France. This style, like Fauvism, used colour to create mood and emotion. The leading artists of expressionism were E. Kirchner, V. Kandinsky, E. Marc.

2. Cubism. Surrealism. Cubism was essentially a revolution in the artist’s approach to space, both on the flat surface of a picture and in sculpture. In 1909 P. Picasso created the first Cubist sculpture, a bronze Head of Woman. In 1911 two Cubist exhibitions held in Paris brought the work of avant-garde artists to the attention of the general public. Although this phase of Cubism was brief, its impact on western art was enormous.

Surrealism. Another stylistic shift in Picasso’s work, influenced by Cubism, has been called surrealism. This term literary means “above the real”, and denotes a truer reality than that of the visible world (“Girl in front of a Mirror”). In Picasso’s work of 1937, Guernica, he combined both Analytic and Synthetic Cubist forms.

3. Dadaism. The term “Dada” refers to an international intellectual movement that began during the war in the relative safety neutral Switzerland. Dada was thus not an artistic style in the sense of shared formal qualities that are easily recognized. Rather, it was an idea, a kind of “anti-art”, based on a nihilisv (from the Latin nihil, meaning “nothing”) philosophy of negation.

One of the major prophet of Dada was Marcel Duchamp, whose “Nude Descending a Staircase” had already caused a sensation in 1913.

Many members of the Dada movement also became interested in the Surrealist style that supplanted it. It was the writer Andre Breton who bridged the gap between Dada and Surrealism with his first Surrealist Manifesto of 1924. He advocated art and literature based on Freud’s psychoanalytic technique of free association, an exploration into the imagination, and a reentry into the world of myth, fear, fantasy, and dream. The very term “surreal” connotes a higher reality – a state of being that is more real than mere appearance.

The most prominent surrealist artist was Salvador Dali. The development of European literature of the first half of the XX century is associated with Universal human values in general – the distinctive feature of Surrealism. One of the central modernistic problems in literature is the question about the place of “small man” in a society, his/her deeds, that was stipulated by realization of exposure, a crash of humanitarian ideals. Literature of “lost generation” appeared: E. Hemingway, E. M. Remark, F. S. Fitzerald. It is incorrect to consider a foreign art of the period between the two wars to be modernism only.

The original changes took place in music. Opera was not so popular. Music, which differed by expressiveness, sound sharpness appeared: I. Stravynsky, B. Bartok, A. Schonberg.

Some changes took place in architecture of the period between two wars. The architects tried to put end eclectism of a style “Modern”, they wanted bring architecture into accordance with technical possibilities of that development. Architecture of that period is realized in numerous innovatory trends of constructivism: V. Gropius, F. Jourden, and Le Corbusier made the foundation of constructivism bases in Europe.

4. Ukrainian culture in interwar period.

Literature was represented by M. Hvylyovy, R. Tychyna, V. Sosyura, O. Dosvitny, H. Epic, Yu. Yanovsky. They defended a national culture, but not proletarian one. They were supported by a group of newclassics. The representatives of this group considered “europeism” to be a way of Ukrainian people to national revival on the base of high European culture (M. Zerov, M. Dray-Hmara, P. Fylypovych, M. Rylsky).

Music. National opera and ballet theatres were founded. The remarkable composers were M. Verykovsky, K. Dankevych,          K. Lyatoshynsky, K. Stytsenko.

Ukrainian famous “avant-guard” painter was K. Malevych. Realistic trend was developed by F. Krychevsky.

Questions and tasks for self-control

  1. Give general description of culture in the beginning of the XX century.
  2. What is Fauvism?
  3. Speak about expressionism.
  4. Characterize Dadaism.
  5. What do you know about Surrealism?
  6. Speak about Ukrainian culture in interwar period.

 

THEME 9. CULTURE OF THE XX CENTURY.

  1. Avant-gardism.
  2. Pop art. Op art.
  3. Post-modernism.

Basic categories and notions: avant-gardism, abstractionism, nonconformists, existentialism, collage, modern, paradigm, psychoanalysis, rock culture, pop art, Freudism.

1. Avant-gardism. We’ll start from the general factors of western European cultural development. The continuation of modernism existence was in some state of renewal. Post-modernistic trends are abstractionism, new avant-gardism. Two of the most important artists are Hans Hofmann (1880 – 1966) and Josef Albers (1888 – 1976), which emigrated to America from Germany.

            “Action painting” was a term coined by the critic Harold Rosenberg to describe the work of certain members of the New York School. The best known of the “action” or “gesture” painters is Jackson Pollock (1912 – 1956), who began as a regionalist, and turned to surrealism in the late 1930s and early 1940s.

            Many sculptors whose work conveys a dynamic abstraction akin to abstract expressionism. David Smith (1906 – 1965) welded iron and steel to produce a dynamic form of sculptural abstraction.

            Louise Nevelson (1899 – 1988) made assemblies consisting of “found objects” – especially furniture parts and carpentry tools – set inside open boxes.

            In the 1960s the most significant style to emerge in the world was “pop”. In contrast to abstract expressionist subjectivity, the pop artists strove for an “objectivity” embodied by the imagery of objects.

            Pop art made its debut in London in 1956 and continued in England. In contrast to abstract expressionist subjectivity – which viewed the work of art as a revelation of the artist’s inner, unconscious mind – the pop artists strove for an “objectivity” embodied by the imagery of objects.

            Another artistic product of the 1960s, the so-called Happenings, probably derived from the Dada performances at the Cabaret Voltaire in Zürich during World War I.

2. Pop art. Op art.  Op art is akin to pop art in rhyme only, for the recognizable object is totally eliminated from op art in favor of geometric abstraction. The op art artist produced kinetic effects, using arrangements of colour, lines, and shapes, or some combination of these elements.

Sculpture. From 1960s sculptures movements were called Minimal, or primary sculptures, because they were direct statements of solid geometric form. The impersonal character of vinimal sculptures is intended to convey the idea that an artwork is a pure object having only shape and texture in relation to space.

In the late 1960s, the popularity of photography, its relationship to pop art, and the notion that it permits an objective record of reality, led to the development of the Photorealist Style (Chuck Close, Gilbert Proesch, Laurie Anderson, Richard Estes). The most interesting artist of the XX century design was                 R. Buckminster Fuller, philosopher, poet, architect, and engineer. He is best known for the principle of structural design that led to the invention of the geodesic dome.

3. Post-Modernism. Post-modern architecture is eclectic. It combines different styles from the past to produce a new vision, which is enhanced, but not determined by modern technology.   Post-modernism rejects the international style ethic that “form follows function”.

“High Tech”. By 1977 Lloyd’s of London, the international insurance market, needed new quality. In addition to housing, the more than five thousand people who use the building every day. Lloyd’s had to adapt to the technological changes, principally in communications, that were revolutionizing the insurance and other financial markets. Unlike the neolithic structures, the Egyptian pyramids, and the Gothic cathedrals, the technology on which modern structures are based may be obsolete within five or ten years of their construction.

All works of art affect the environment in some way. In its broadest sense, the environment encompasses any indoor or outdoor space. Today, the term tends to refer more to the outdoors – the rural and urban landscape, for example, – than to indoor spaces. Two recent artists, whose work has had a startling, though usually temporary, impact on the natural environment, are Robert Smithson (1938 – 1973) and Christo (b. 1935).

At times, history seems to repeat itself. The French expression “The more things change, the more they remain the same” well describes this historical paradox. On the visual arts, it is possible to witness this phenomenon unfolding before our very eyes. Themes persist, styles change and are revived. New themes appear, old themes reappear. The media of art also persist. Artists still use bronze and marble, oil paint, and encaustic. Nevertheless, modern technology is constantly expanding the media available to artists, as well as introducing new subjects and inspiring stylistic developments.

Conclusion. Recalling that one of the primary impulses to make art is the wish to keep memory alive, we conclude this text with two memorial works. Both have political, social, and artistic significance.

As we approach the XX century, we are presented with a proliferation of artistic styles and expanding definitions of what actually constitutes art. The pace of technological change, particularly in communications and the media, spawns new concepts and styles at an increasing rate. Taste as well as style changes, and it will be for future generations to look back on our era and to separate the permanent from the impermanent.

Questions and tasks for self-control

  1. How can the public culture be characterized?
  2. Characterize the modernism peculiarities.
  3. Speak about the notion pop-art culture.

THEME 10. CULTURE OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE  XX – BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY.

  1. Culture of Soviet Ukraine in interwar period.
  2. Cultural life in the second half of the XX century.
  3. Culture of independent Ukraine.

Basic categories and notions: anti-fascist, cinematographic art, socialist realism, prose, nonconformism, collage.

1. Culture of Soviet Ukraine in interwar period. It should be mentioned that in the interwar period Ukrainian territory was divided between four states.

The literature of this period was represented by                   M. Hvylyovy, P. Tychyna, V. Sosyura, Yu. Yanovsky, etc. They defended a national culture, but not proletarian one. They were supported by a group of neoclassics. The representatives of this group (M. Zerov, M. Dray-Hmara, M. Rylsky) considered “europeism” to be a way of Ukrainian people to national revival on the base of high European culture.

Cinematographic art had a big significance for the culture, which was formed in 1920s. Documentary, scientific, and historic films appeared. The famous producers were P. Chordynin,               V. Hordin, O. Dovzhenko.

Ukrainian music was developed in the interwar period.

     National opera and ballet theatres were founded. The remarkable composers M. Verykovsky, K. Dankevych, P. Kozytsky, B. Lyatoshynsky, L. Revutsky, K. Stetsenko worked in wide diapason – from rearranging of folk songs to creation of the modern Ukrainian music.

Figurative art: the successful development of Ukrainian “avant-garde”  in 1920s (K. Malevych, V. Tatlin).

Realistic trend is developed: F. Krychevsky,                          O. Shovkunenko. Cultural explosion of creative activity of               I. Boychuk took place in the interwar period. He tried to combine the traditional painting receptions with contemporaneity.

2. Cultural life in the second half of the XX century. This question deals with post war development of Ukrainian culture. The changes took place in the period of Hrushchov’s “thaw”. “Thaw” touched all areas of culture. “Men of the 60s” was the very significant phenomenon. The changes took place in the second half of 1960 – 80s.

In 1980s, the period of “perestroyka” gave the possibility to make a process of national and cultural revival more active. New independent Ukraine was founded. Revival of Ukrainian culture became a result of inspired, great work of its many representatives. However we can’t help speaking about problems, which exist in culture: language problems, russification, there is no unity and consent in the religious life.

So, entering the XXI century, Ukraine is to overcome a crisis of national identity, to revive a process of a spiritual, cultural, moral, and ethic development.

     Questions and tasks for self-control

  1. What way does the national culture in Ukraine develop?
  2. Characterize the problems of Ukrainian culture.
 

TEST 1

 

1. The culture is:

a) historical periods of the  development of mankind;

b)  behavior rules in a society;

c) a complex of special material, spiritual, intellectual, and emotional lineaments of society.

 

2. The culture is divided into:

  1.  mythological and scientific;
  2. material and spiritual;
  3. slaveholding and feudal.

 

3. Primeval society came into existence over:

a) 2 million years ago;

b) 1.5  million years ago;

c) 1 million years ago.

 

4. By the III century B.C. the main tools of people trade had been made of:

  1. stone, wood, iron;
  2. stone, bone, wood;

c) stone, wood, bronze.

 

5. The Paleolithic Venus is:

            a) the goddess of love;

b) beauty symbol;

c) Paleolithic sculpture is the small limestone statue of a woman.

 

TEST 2

1. What is the biggest Egyptian pyramid:

  1. of Hephren;
  2. of Heopse;
  3. of Josser.

 

2. Who invented writing:

            a) Egyptians;             b) Indians;                c) Sumerians.

 

3. Who  invented paper:

            a) Egyptians;

            b) Indians;

            c) Chineses.

 

4. Who was Confucius:

a) an artist;

b) a thinker;

c) a scientist.

 

5.  "The Father of a tragedy" was:

              a) Sophokl;

              b) Aeschylus;

              c)  Aristophan.

 

6. A remarkable architect in ancient Greece was:

  1. Finidid;
  2. Herodot;

             c)    Fidiy.

 

7.   The epoch of hellenism is:

     a) the epoch of Greek policies foundations;

     b) the epoch of Roman culture formation;

     c) the epoch of Greek culture diffusion on Mediterranean Sea countries and Asia.

 

8. The name of the famous Roman orator is:

  1. T. Plautus;
  2.  M. T. Cicero;
  3.  Q. Ennius.

 

9. The author of   “Aeneid” is:

                a) Virgil;  

            b) Ovid;

            c) Homere

10. A rectangular building for trade and judicial businesses in ancient Rome was called:

  1.  forum;
  2.  tabulary;
  3.  basilica.

 

 

TEST 3

 

1. Higher schools, where people studied and pursued science in Arabic countries and Byzantine, existed since:

         a) VIII — IX centuries;

         b) VI – VII centuries;

         c) X – XI centuries.

 

2. The highest development of Byzantine culture took place during the dynasty of:

  1.  Issavrian;
  2.  Comninian;
  3.  Palleoleian.

 

3. The first period of icon-painting in Byzantine began in:

a) the XI century;

                b) the VIII century;   

                c) the IX century.

 

4. The second period of icon-painting in Byzantine was completed in the

IX century by the victory of iconophilists. Their leader was:

  1.  I. Damaskin;
  2.  F. Studit;
  3.  H. Bogoslav.

 

5. Fresco is:

    a) drawing, done on damp plaster;

    b) work of art, done from pieces of coloured glass;

    c) portraiture.

 

 6. Byzantine empire became extinct in:

  1. 1453;
  2. 1054;
  3. 1204.

 

TEST 4

1. In Western Europe the first university was founded in:

     a) Oxford;

     b) Bologna;

c) Cambridge.

 

2. The Medieval universities as a rule had:

  1.  two faculties;
  2.  three faculties: theological, juridical, preparatory;

                c) four faculties: preparatory, theological, medical, juridical.

 

3. Romanesque style in art developed within the:

a) XII — XIV centuries;

b) VI – VII centuries;

c) X – XII centuries.

 

4. Gothic styles in art developed within the:

a) XII – XIV centuries;

b) VI – VII centuries;

           c) X – XI centuries.

5. Who invented the printing machine:

a) N. Guttenberg;      

b) N. Kopernik;

c) G. Galileo.

6. Schools attached to orthodox churches and monasteries in the
XIV-XVI century gave:

     a) only elementary education (reading, writing, counting, singing);

b) elementary and secondary education (reading, writing, counting, singing, and bases of “Seven free arts”);

c) not only elementary and secondary, but also higher education (knowledge on philosophy and God’s postulates).

 

 

 

TEST 5

 

1. Renaissance has arisen in:

a) France;

b) Italy;

c) Germany.

 

2. Who was named the Father of humanism:

            a) Francesco Petrarch;

            b) Filippo Brunelleschi;

            c) Leonardo da Vinci.

3. The genius Holland painter Rembrandt is the author of the famous picture:

  1.  Paris law-court;
  2.  Danaja;
  3.  Athenian school.

 

4. The author of the colonnade on the St. Peter's cathedral square in Rome was:

  1. F. Borromini;
  2. L. Bernini;
  3. J. Briappo.

 

5. The founder of classicism of French music was a composer:

  1.  J. S. Bach;
  2.  V. A. Mozart;
  3.  G. B. Lully.

 

6. The style of French architecture, associated with the time of Napoleon I empire, is:

  1.  classicism;
  2.  baroque;
  3.  empire.

 

7. The new direction in Western European culture of the XVII century. established by Swiss historian J. Burckhardt in the XIX century was called:

                а) empire style;

                b) baroque;

                c) rococo.

 

8. The Remarkable representative of the Age of Enlightenment was:

               a) G. Lank;

               b) T. More;

      c) R. Descartes.

 

 

 

 

 

TEST 6

  1. The founder of cubism in painting was:
  1.  P. Gauguin;
  2.  P. Picasso;
  3.  F. Goya.

 

2. A new vision of the world, founded on the immediate impression is called:

  1. expressionism;
  2. impressionism;

  c)  symbolism.

 

3. Dadaism as modernism variety came into existence in:

  1. Switzerland;
  2.  Germany;
  3.  France.

 

4. The founder of surrealism in painting was:

  1.  Velasquez;
  2.  F. Goya;
  3.  S. Dali.

 

5. The first artist and theoretician of new direction in culture that does not contain neither a reminder about reality nor response from this reality was:

  1.  S. Dali;
  2.  O. Kokoschka;
  3.  V. Kandinsky.

6. At the beginning of the XX century (1905) a group "Bridge" appeared in Dresden. It established:

  1.  dadaism;
  2.  impressionism;
  3.  expressionism;
  4.  avant-gardism;
  5.  symbolism.

TEST 7

 

1. Ukrainian puppet-shows were popular in Ukraine in the XVII century. The authors and the actors were the pupils of the fraternity schools and colleges. Such theatre was called:

  1.  vertep;
  2.  miracle;

c)  interact.

  

2. As a chronicle testifies, the first schools in Kyiv Rus were founded by the Duke:

     a) Svyatoslav (Zavoyovnyk) the Conqueror;

     b) Volodymyr (Velyky) the Great;

     c) Volodymyr Monomah.

 

3. Who was the author of  the Story of the Passing Years:

     a) the Metropolitan Illarion;

     b) the Monk Nestor;

     c) the Duke Volodymyr Velyky.

 

4. As a chronicle testifies, the first library in Rus was founded in:

a) Sophiya cathedral in Kyiv;

b) Sophiya cathedral in Novhorod;

c) Uspensky cathedral in Halych.

 

 5. In Kyiv Rus children were taught only:

a) to read and to write, to compose the poems and speeches, to   understand language of spheres, and God's postulates and moral  bases;

b) read, write, and count, God's postulates, moral bases, and church singing;

c) to read, write, count, compose poems and speeches, to sing in church choir, God's postulates and moral bases.

 

6. In Kyiv Rus the most popular architecture was of:
a) Romanesque;

    b) Byzantine style;

    c) Gothic style.

 

7. The founder of Kyiv college – one of the high school at the end
of the XVI - the first half of the XVII centuries was:

       a) I. Borytsky;

              b) P. Mohyla;

              c) K. Ostrozky.

 

8. Yu. Kotermak is known in Ukraine and Europe as:

       a) a clever war-lord;

b) a famous scientist and teacher, professor and rector of Bologna

    university;

       c) a brilliant politician.

 

9. The widespread architecture style in the XIV-XV centuries in Ukrainian lands was:

       a) Byzantine style;

       b) Romanesque;

       c) combination of lines of Byzantine and Gothic styles.

 

10. O. Dovzhenko was known as:

a)  an artist;

b)  a scientist;

c) a producer.

 

 

GLOSSARY

Abstractionism (Lat. abstractus – dissevered) – movement in painting, pointless art founded at the beginning of the XX century. It is also called “sign-painting or abstract painting, action painting”. Artists of this current want by means of arbitrary forms, lines and colour blots to express unreal images and impressions, abandon from realistic images of things.

Allegory (Gr. allegoria – other speaking) – story with symbolically represented moral.

Arabesques – a complicated interlaced ornamental pattern, widespread mostly in art of Moslem countries, made by geometrical vegetable patterns and calligraphic Arabic superscriptions.

Arc (Lat. arcus – bow) – part of the circumference of a circle or other curve.

Architecture –  design and construction of buildings; style of a building.

Art –  creation of works of beauty or other special significance;  exercise of human skill (as distinguished from nature).

Avant-gardism – modernistic movements in the art of the     XX century (futurism, abstractionism, constructivism), its representatives proclaimed a full break with traditions of realistic art.

Baroque (It. barocco – fanciful, wonderful) – style in European and American art in the end of the XVI – middle of   XVII century, which appeared in architecture, painting, literature, and music. Grandiosity and decorative splendour, solemnity and inclination to impressive effects are typical for baroque.

Bible (Gr. biblia – books) – Christian scriptures of Old and New Testaments; (bible) copy of these; (bible) colloq. authoritative book.

Brahmanism or Brahminism (sometimes not cap.) – the religious and social system of orthodox Hinduism, characterized by diversified pantheism, the caste system, and the sacrifices and family ceremonies of Hindu tradition; the form of Hinduism prescribed in the Vedas, Brahmanas, and Upanishads.

Bronze age – historic period of human development (4 – 2 millenium B.C.), specifically its culture, when the bronze wares were widespread. On the territory of contemporary Ukraine bronze age lasted since the XIX century B.C. till the VIII century A.C.

Buddhism – Asian religion or philosophy founded by Gautama Buddha and his followers, which declares that by destroying greed, hatred, and delusion, which are the causes of all suffering, man can attain perfect enlightenment.

Calvinism – the theological system of John Calvin and his followers, characterized by emphasis on the doctrines of predestination, irresistibility of grace, and justification by faith.

Caricature – a pictorial, written, or acted representation of a person, which exaggerates his characteristic traits for comic effect; a ludicrously inadequate or inaccurate imitation.

Caryatid (Lat. Caryatides, Gr. Karuatides priestesses of Artemis at Karuai (Caryae), village in Laconia) – a column, used to support an entablature, in the form of a draped female figure.

Cathedral (Lat. (ecclesia) cathedra – cathedral (church), from cathedra – bishop's throne, Gr. kathedra – seat) – the principal church of a diocese, containing the bishop's official throne.

Ceramics – (functioning as sing.) the art and techniques of producing articles of clay, porcelain, etc.

Collage – an art form in which compositions are made out of pieces of paper, cloth, photographs, and other miscellaneous objects, juxtaposed and pasted on a dry ground; a composition made in this way; any collection of unrelated things.

Constructivism – a movement in abstract art evolved in Russia after World War I, primarily by Naum Gabo, who explored the use of movement and machine age materials in sculpture and had considerable influence on modern art and architecture.

Cubism – a French school of painting, collage, relief, and sculpture initiated in 1907 by Picasso and Braque, which amalgamated viewpoints of natural forms into a multifaceted surface of geometrical planes.

Custom – established social habit or practice of a group, transmitted from one generation to another; convention.

Cyrillic – denoting or relating to the alphabet derived from that of the Greeks, supposedly by Saint Cyril, for the writing of Slavonic languages; now used primarily for Russian, Bulgarian, and Serbian dialect of Serbo-Croatian.

Dada or Dadaism – a nihilistic artistic movement of the early XX century in Western Europe and the USA, founded on the principles of irrationality, incongruity, and irreverence towards accepted aesthetic criteria.

Eclectic – selection of what seems the best from various styles, doctrines, ideas, methods, etc.

Encrust or incrust – to cover or overlay or as with a crust or hard coating; to form or cause to form a crust or hard coating; to decorate lavishly, as with jewels.

Expressionism – widespread movement in literature and art at the beginning of the XX century, which proclaimed subjective spiritual world of a person as the only reality, and its expression is the main aim of art.

Fresco – very durable method of wall painting using watercolours on wet plaster or, less properly, dry plaster (fresco secco), with a less durable results; a painting done in this way.

Futurism (Lat. Future) – avant-garde direction in literature and art; an artistic movement that arose in Italy in 1909 to replace traditional aesthetic values with characteristics of the machine age. Followers aimed to create synthetic art of future.

Graffito – archeol. Any inscription or drawing scratched or carved onto a surface, esp. rock or pottery; drawings, messages, etc., often obscene, scribbled on the walls of public lavatories, advertising posters, etc.

Gravure – a kind of graphics, medium of drawing procreation with the help of printing form tree, metal, plastic or stone.

Heathendom – adopted in Christian church and partially in historical literature a term for designation of pre-Christian and     non-Christian polytheistic religions. Gods personified forces of nature. The demons, ghosts of forests, and waters were hallowed. On the base of heathendom there was created an original spiritual culture, folk-tales, legends, ceremonies, and songs. Heathendom was forced out by official monotheistic religions which adopted heathen rituals and beliefs to their needs.

Hinduism – the complex of beliefs, values, and customs comprising the dominant religion of India. Characterized by the worship of many gods, including Brahma as supreme being, a caste system, belief in reincarnation, etc.

Humanism – the denial of any power or moral value superior to that of humanity; the rejection of religion in favour of a belief in the advancement of humanity by its own efforts; a philosophical position that stresses the autonomy of human reason in contradiction to the authority of the Church; a cultural movement of the Renaissance, based on classical studies; interest in the welfare of people.

Iconography – the symbols used in a work of art movement; the conventional significance attached to such symbols; a collection of pictures of a particular subject, such as Christ; the representation of the subjects of icons or portraits, esp. on coins.

Iconostasis or iconostas – in Eastern Church a screen with doors and icons set in tiers, which separates the bema (sanctuary) from the nave.

Icon painting – a kind of cult painting (icons). Icon painting appeared on the base of ancient Greek portraiture.

Impressionism – a movement in French painting, developed in the 1870s chiefly by Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, and Sisley, having the aim of objectively recording experience by a system of fleeting impressions, esp. of natural light effects; the technique in art, literature, or music of conveying experience by capturing fleeting impressions of reality or mood of a person.

Iron Age – a period of human development and its cultures, which is associated with the use of wares made of iron, that followed Bronze Age at the beginning of the 1 millenium B.C.

Landscape (from Middle Dutch lantscap – region; related to Old English landscipe – tract of land; Old High German lantscaf – region) – an extensive area of land regarded as being visually distinct; a painting, drawing, photograph, etc., depicting natural scenery.

Madrigal – a vernacular song, usually composed for three to six unaccompanied voices.

Messiah – Anointed One, or Savior; in Greek, Christos.

Mosaic – a design or decoration made up of small pieces of coloured glass, stone, etc.; the process of making a mosaic.

Myth – a story about superhuman beings of an earlier age taken by preliterate society to be a true account, usually of how natural phenomena, social customs, etc.

Naturalism – a movement, esp. in art and literature, advocating detailed realistic and factual description, esp. in         XIX century France in the writings of Zola, Flaubert, etc.

Nocturne – a short, lyrical piece of music, esp. one for the piano; a painting or tone poem of a night scene.

Organ – a keyboard instrument in which keyboards and pedals are used to force air into a series of pipes, causing them to sound.

Pagoda – an Indian or Far Eastern temple, esp. a tower, usually pyramidal and multistoreyed.

Painting – the art or process of applying paints on a surface such as canvas, to make a picture or artistic composition; a composition or picture made in this way.

Portrait – a painting, drawing, sculpture, photographs or other likeness of an individual, esp. of the face; a verbal description or picture, esp. of a person’s character.

Realism – a style of painting and sculpture that seeks to represent the familiar or typical in real life, rather than an idealized, formalized, or romantic interpretation of it.

Rococo – a style of architecture and decoration that originated in France in the early XVIII century, characterized by elaborate but graceful light, ornamentation, often containing asymmetrical motifs; an eighteenth-century style of music characterized by petite prettiness, a decline in the use of counterpoint, and extreme use of ornamentation; any florid or excessively ornamental style.

Romanticism – the theory, practice, and style of the romantic art, music, and literature of the late XVIII and early XIX centuries, usually opposed to classicism. Beginning of romanticism is associated with the end of the Age of Enlightenment.

Sculpture – the art of making figures or designs by carving wood, moulding plaster, etc., or casting metals, etc.; work or a work made in this way.

Self-portrait – portrait or description of somebody by      him – or herself.

Sketch – a rapid drawing or painting, often a study for subsequent elaboration; a brief, usually descriptive and informal essay or other literary composition.

Stained-glass windows or stained glass – decorative artistic composition of figurative or ornament pattern character from coloured glass or another clear material for windows or doors. Specially widely used in gothic cult buildings of the late Dark Ages.

Statue – a wooden, stone, metal, plaster, or other kind of sculpture of a human or animal figure, usually of life-size or larger.

Stone Age – a period in human culture identified by use of stone implements and usually divided into the paleolithic, mesolithic, and neolithic stages.

Surrealism – a movement in art and literature in the 1920s, which developed esp. from Dada, characterized by the evocative juxtaposition of incongruous images in order to include subconscious and dream elements.

Symbolism – representation of something in symbolic form or attribution of symbolic meaning or character to something as a system of symbols or symbolic representation.

Triptych – a set of three pictures or panels, usually hinged so that the two wing panels fold over the larger central one: often used as an altarpiece.

Tryzna – in ancient Slavs till the X century. Final part of funeral ceremony, with establishing of Christianity included a system of burial rituals.

Veda – the oldest monuments of ancient Indian literature, written in Sanskrit at the end of the II – the first half of the I millennium, consists of 4 volumes.

Watercolour – paint, that is dissolved by water, and also paintings made with this paint. The peculiarity of watercolour is a colour transparence, colour cleanness.

Ziggurat (from Assyrian summit – height) – a type of rectangular temple tower or tiered mound erected by the Summerians, Akkadians, and Babylonians in Mesopotamia. The tower of Babel is thought to be one of these.

Zoroastrianism (Zoroastrism) – the dualistic religion founded by the Persian Prophet Zoroaster in the late VII century B.C. and set forth in the sacred writings of the Zend-Avesta. It is based on the concept of a continuous struggle between Ormazd (or Ahura Mazola), the god of creation, light, and goodness, and his arch enemy, Ahriman, the spirit of evil and darkness, and it includes a highly developed ethical code. Also called Mazdaism.

 

 CONTROL QUESTIONS ON WORLD CULTURE

  1. How did primeval art come into existence?
  2. What was typical for world vision of ancient Egypt?
  3. What achievements of old Egyptians came in to the treasure-house  of world culture?
  4. What can you say about the developmental level of society in    Mesopotamia?

5. What peculiar features of ancient Indian culture do you know?

  1. What were the most prominent achievements of ancient China?

7. Give the description of antiquity.

8. What peculiar features of ancient Greek culture do you know?

  1. What can you say about the relations between mythology and arts in ancient Greece?
  2. What peculiar features of ancient Roman culture do you know?
  3. How is the originality of Roman culture exhibited?
  4. What were the stages of Byzantine art?
  5. What peculiar features of  Middle Ages culture do you know?
  6. What can you say about medieval educational system?
  7. How can romanticism and gothicism be characterized?
  8. What is humanism?
  9. What do you know about the specific features of Renaissance culture.
  10. Who are named the titans of revival?
  11. Speak about painters of Renaissance.
  12. What factors did influence the rebound of Revival in Western European?
  13. What sources and essence of Reformation do you know?
  14. What artistic styles of New Time do you know?
  15. Discuss the specific features of the Age of Enlightenment in Europe.
  16. How were the ideas of Enlightenment reflected in the culture of the XIX century?
  17. What do you know about classicism?
  18. Why did romanticism appear in the culture of the XIX century?
  19. How can impressionism and symbolism be characterized in painting, literature, music?
  20. What reasons of modernistic movements formation in culture of  the XX century. do you know?

29. What is expressionism?

30. What is Dadaism?

31. What is cubism?

32. What is abstractionism?

  1. What peculiar features of surrealism do you know?
  2. How can the mass culture be characterized?
  3. What are the basic problems of contemporary culture development?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

  1. Adams L. S. A history of Western Art / Adams Laurie Schneider. McGraw-Hill Companies : London, 1997. – 560 р.
  2. Fiero G. K. The Humanistic Tradition / Gloria K. Fiero. – V.1 – 4. –  McGraw-Hill Companies : London, 1995 – 1997. – 178 р.
  3. Shevchenko O. The Stories of Bygone years /                               O.     Shevchenko. – Kiev, 2003. – 463 р. 
  4. Ancient Greece (Hellenic) [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http:/www.Showgate.com/medea/grklink2.html
  5. Ancient Near East [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http:/religion.rutgers.edu/vri/aneast.html
  6. Egyptian History [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу:  http:/www.wsu.edu
  7. The First Unification of China (221 – 207 B.C.) [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http:/www.mc.maricopa. edu/anthro/china/qinemp.html
  8. The History of India [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу:  http:/www.itihaas.com/

 

Навчальне видання

 

Методичні вказівки

на тему “Культурологія: українська й зарубіжна культура”

з курсу “Культурологія”

для іноземних студентів

(Англійською мовою)

 

 

 

 

 

Відповідальний за випуск В. А. Нестеренко

Редактор М. В. Буката

Комп’ютерне верстання:  В. А. Клименко, Н. В. Лобко

 

 

 

 

 

Підписано до друку 14.11.2011, поз.

Формат 60х84/16. Ум. друк. арк. 5,35. Обл.-вид. арк. 3,25. Тираж 50 пр. Зам. №        .

Собівартість видання        грн.        коп.

 

 

 

 

Видавець і виготовлювач

Сумський державний університет,

вул. Римского-Корсакова, 2, м. Суми, 40007

Свідоцтво суб’єкта видавничої справи ДК № 3062 від 17.12.2007.