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Presentations

Session 1

Types, Content and Objectives of Presentation

1. Top 10 evidence-based, best practices for PowerPoint® in the classroom.

http://www.pptdoctor.net/files/articles/2012_best-practices.pdf

Questions to answer:

What was most surprising to you in the reading?

While reading, I was surprised that many people consider PowerPoint to be a horrible platform for presentation. I have always used only this platform exceptionally and have considered it to be a perfect tool to deliver the information to the audience. Apart from that, it was surprising and interesting to learnt that it is wise to use the handouts. Otherwise, I did not learn anything else that was new to me.

What was the most useful?

The article was useful in general, although a few pieces of information made think of presentations more carefully. For examples, when I read that statistically, so many students are ready to leave the classroom because of the boring presentation made me decide that I should design my future presentation with the consideration of how the audience might perceive it. Finally, although I felt it intuitively, it was useful to learn that such elements as videos, transition, and pictures make it much more appealing.

What mistakes do you tend to make when you present?

I guess that my mistakes are my habit to include too much text in the slide sometimes and the use of such distracting elements at 3D pictures. The first one is an error because the audience gets bored of theory and is less attentive since people prefer to see pictures to reading the text off the screen. Meanwhile, the other one is a mistake because such elements are distracting, which makes the people pay less attention to the presented information.

What type of handouts would be useful to have with your perspective presentation?

            I plan to use the handouts that include the list of the slides with their titles in my perspective presentation. However, I am not going to include any pictures or text on the handouts to keep the audience’s interest in what they will see next in my presentation since I think that if people have everything available, they might get distracted.

 

2. Five rules for creating great presentations.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hT9GGmundag  (It could be given as a home assignment before the session).

Questions to answer:

 

  • How do you understand the first rule “Treat your audience as KING”?

Any presentation is aimed at delivering some information to an audience, and since it is natural for people to get tired of receiving too much data, special techniques need to be used to keep them attracted and interested. Therefore, the audience must be treated a king because any means should be utilized to reach to final goal of the process.

In what way ideas can be spread?

The ideas can be spread in different ways. On the one hand, it is the presenter who delivers it through messages. On the other hand, the audience can perceive the ideas by looking at the pictures on the slides since they often reflect the general idea of the presentation. Similarly, the ideas can be spread by using videos, which might not even require oral messages.

  • How can presenters help audience to see what they are saying?

Presenters can help audience to see what they are saying by decreasing the amount of text on the slides and adding more visual materials , such as pictures, videos, or graphics, which deliver the text in a way that is more easy to perceive.

  • Give your comments the following issues:  on the Design vs Decoration. “Decorating is the best policy”.

It often happens that presenters should delete some of the content after they complete the presentation to reach out for the audience better. I agree that decorating is the best policy because it is the first thing that the people see, and it makes the first impression that must be persuasive. Thus, it is important to review the presentation after it is finished and decorate it properly.

  • What can do a world of good for your relationships with audience?

I think that my relationships with audience could be much better if I do not look at the slides all the time but only refer to them from time to time and use them rather as an illustration of what I am telling instead of a reference for the speech. Besides, there should be as few words on the slides as possible so that people do not get bored.

 

3. Needs analysis.

Task 1.

Complete the table below about yourself

 

How often I give a presentation

I do not give presentations often. Usually, it used to occur during the studying process when I was supposed to give them to my class.

The kinds of presentation I give

The presentations that I give are academic, which means that I have to deliver some information on a certain topic.

The purpose of presentation

The purpose of the presentation is to provide the audience with the information on the topic.

The audience

Classmates.

 

What I find difficult about giving a presentation is:

 

  • Making a good first impression          □
  • Structuring my presentation               □               
  • Keeping my audience interested       □ +
  • Dealing with problems                       □ +
  • Using equipment/visuals                    □       
  • Closing the presentation                     □
  • Dealing with questions                       □ +
  • Other                                                  □    Dealing with the fear of public.

                                                                              Sustaining the tempo of the speech.

        

 

 

 

Task 2.

Developing your awareness of what you already do well, and what you could do better, will allow you to focus on improving those skills you really need. In the right column put down your priorities (1-8), which are currently of most importance to you.

 

                                             Focus area

       Priority

 

  • Formulating the purpose of my presentation - 6
  • Useful phrases for referring to visuals, ensuring your  multicultural audience can see - 7
  • Organizing what you want to say - 2
  • Maintaining interest through effective delivery - 4
  • Useful phrases for clarifying what you mean, checking the audience is following and involving the audience - 5
  • Strategies for coping in unexpected situations, difficult Qs - 3
  • Useful phrases for dealing with problems and questions - 1
  • Useful phrases for ending your presentation, summarizing, handing over and thanking international audience - 8

 

 

4. Types of presentation.

An expert in giving presentations gives some examples of different presentations.

 

  1. Press conference: two executives tell journalists why their companies have merged.
  2. Briefing: a senior officer gives information to other officers about a police operation they are about to undertake.
  3. Demonstration: the head of research and development tells non-technical colleagues about a new machine.
  4. Product launch: a car company announces a new model
  5. Lecture: a university professor communicates information about economics to 300 students.
  6. Talk: a member of a stamp-collecting club tells other members about 19th century British stamps.
  7. Seminar: a financial adviser gives advice about investments to eight people.
  8. Workshop: a yoga expert tells people how to improve their breathing techniques and gets them to practice.

 

Task 3.

Match the presentation types in A-H to the things (1-8) that people say in them.

 

  1. As you can see, this prototype is far in advance of anything we’ve done before. - C
  2. Here are some typical patterns for demand and supply in the widget industry. - H
  3. I’m going to give each group a series of problems faced by an imaginary company, and I want you to suggest solutions. - E
  4. Now is the right time to get out of company shares and invest in property. - G
  5. The combined resources of our two organizations will allow us to achieve great things. - A
  6. The first postage stamp in the world was the Penny Black in 1840. - F
  7. The parachutists will come in at 08:30 and land in two waves, here and here. - B
  8. The X300 has the most advanced features of any car in its class. - D

                                   Source: Bill Muscull. Business Vocabulary in Use. Intermediate.         

                                                Cambridge University Press 2002

 

5. The Key to Successful Cross-cultural communication

Watch the Video: http://www.commlabindia.com/resources/presentation/effective-cross-cultural-communication.php

Questions to answer:

1. What did you see? How does it apply to your setting?

I saw that it is important for the organization to consider the cultural backgrounds of their employees and to be able to see which culture is the primary one within the organization. This information applies to my setting in the way that the company I researched is cautious of the different cultures within it, and it takes efforts to decrease the negative impact of presumptions and achieve the best efficiency by making people work together.

2. Which of the rules mentioned by Duarte were applied in the presentation?

There were two rules in the presentation. The presenter treated the audience like King since they talked about how important it is to select the primary culture of the employees within the corporation. Also, they applied the rule about how to establish good relationships with the audience. It was applied in the talking about how to make the conditions more favorable for the workers of the company, who are actually receiving the information.

 

Session 2

1. Signposting.

How do signposts work?

Signposting helps you structure and shape the main content of your presentation. Signposts create ‘verbal paragraphs’ or verbal signals’ and raise the attention curve at the beginning and end of each point of your presentation. The technique allows you to guide the audience through the structure of your presentation linking one point to the next. The audience can’t see your notes and can’t look forward to see you what is coming. You know where you are going on your journey and you need to guide your audience by telling them exactly where you are on the roadmap of your presentation. This is a simple but highly effective technique that adds clarity to your presentations.

    Start

       Point 1

       Point 2

       Point 3

Finish

 

 

                 ▲                                    Efficient presentation

 

          SIGNPOST                  ▲

                                         SIGNPOST                 ▲             

                                                                      SIGNPOST

                                                                                    

 

 

 

                                                       Average presentation

 

                                                                       Time

Task 1.

Watch the video and tick the signposts the presenter use. Which of the signposts will you use in your final presentation? ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=59bYTTg--uc )

 

 

Moving on now to……..

I would like to begin by……

Let’s now turn to…….

So, first of all……

Now, turning to…….

Now, what about …..? ……

Let me move on to ……

So, that’s the general picture for…..

I’d like to conclude this point by saying…

This leads me to a point…….

 

So, we’ve looked at…..

That complete my overview of….

Let’s just recap…..

So, that’s pretty much….

and this is….

Next we come to…..

So, that was ….

My next point is….

That’s all I want to say about…..

So, that covers this point…..

And finally…..

I will use such phrases as “First of all,” “Let me move on to,” and “Next we come to” in my presentation. Besides, when finishing up the presentation, I will utilize the phrases “So, that’s pretty much” and “That’s all I want to say about.”

(Source: Erica Williams 2008, Presentations in English, Macmillan. p. 17)

2. Personality types.

Have you heard of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)? It is a psychometric instrument based on the theories of Carl Jung’s psychological types. It does not assess intelligence or aptitude. According to Jungian theory, individuals are born with a predisposition for certain personality preferences. There is no ‘best’ preference and all preferences are equally valid and important. Study the table and answer the questions below the table.

 

 

 

 

 E +

If you are an extravert (E), you probably…..

  • know a lot of people, and count many of them among your ‘close friends’; you like to include as many people as possible in your activities.
  • Don’t mind reading or having a conversation while the TV or the radio is on in the background; in fact you may well be oblivious to this ‘distraction’.
  • Find telephone calls to be welcome interruptions; you don’t hesitate to pick up the phone whenever you have something to tell someone.

Do you prefer to focus on the outer world?

YES

 

 

 

 

  I

 

 

 

If you are an introvert (I), you probably…..

  • enjoy the peace and quiet of having time to yourself; you find your private time too easily invaded and tend to adapt by developing a high power of concentration that can shut out TV, noisy kids or nearby conversations.
  • are perceived as ‘ a great listener’ but feel that others take advantage of you.
  • wish that you could get your ideas out more forcefully, you resent those who blurt out things you were just about to say.

Do you prefer to focus on your own inner world?

 

 S+

If you are a Sensor (S), you probably……

  • find most satisfying those jobs that yield some tangible result; as much as you may hate doing housekeeping, you would rather clean your office than think about where your career is headed.
  • Would rather work with facts and figures than ideas and theories; you like to hear things sequentially instead of randomly.
  • think that fantasy is a dirty word; you wonder about people who seem to spend too much time indulging their imagination.

Do you prefer to focus on the basic information you take in?

YES

 

 N

If you are an Intuitive (N), you probably…..

  • believe, that ‘boring details’ is a redundancy.
  • Find yourself seeking the connection and interrelatedness behind most things rather than accepting them as face value; you are always asking ‘What does that mean?’
  • Tend to give general answers to most questions.
  • Do you prefer to interpret and add meaning?

 

 

 

 T +

If you are a Thinker (T), you probably….

  • Would rather settle a dispute based on what is fair and truthful rather than what will make people happy.
  • don’t mind making difficult decisions and can’t understand why so many people get upset about things that aren’t relevant to the issue at hand.
  • Remember numbers and figures more readily than faces and names.

When making decisions, do you prefer to first look at logic and consistency?

YES

 

 

 

 F

If you are a Feeler (F), you probably……

  • consider a ‘good decision’ one that takes others’ feeling into account.
  • enjoy providing needed services to people although you find that some people take advantage of you.
  • Are often accused of taking things too personally

When making decisions, do you prefer to first look at the people and special circumstances?

 

 J+

 

 

 

If you are a Judger (J), you probably …

  • are always waiting for others, who never seem to be on time.
  • keep lists and use them; if you do something that’s not on your list, you may even add it to the list just so you can cross it off.
  • are accused of being angry when you are not, you are only stating your opinion.

In dealing with the outside world, do you prefer to get things decided?

YES

  

 

   P

If you are a Perceiver (P), you probably ….

  • love to explore the unknown, even if it’s something  as simple as a new route home from work.
  • Have to depend on last-minute spurts of energy to meet deadlines; you usually make the deadline; although you may drive everyone else crazy in the process.
  • don’t like to be pinned down about most things; you’d rather keep your options open.

In dealing with the outside world, do you prefer to stay open to new information and options?

 

 

MBTI identifies basic preferences and identifies and describes sixteen four-letter personality types.

ISTJ

ISFJ

  INFJ

  INTJ

ISTP

ISFP

  INFP

  INTP

ESTP

ESFP

  ENFP

  ENTP

ESTJ

ESFJ

  ENFJ

  ENTJ

 

  1. Which statements do you agree / disagree with?

I am an ESTJ type, which means that I am an Extravert, Sensor, Thinker and a Judger. I think that I agree with almost all the statements but for a few. I do not think that telephone calls are interruptions for me. Apart from that, I am good both at numbers and faces, which is not a feature of a Thinker. Eventually, I often get angry for a reason.

  1. Do you have an idea what your four-letter personality type might be?

I am not 100% sure, but I suppose that it is a combination of the features of a character. Maybe, it could mean that I am suitable for working in a stressful environment or something like that.

  1. Why do you think it is useful to know about different personality types?

I think that such knowledge would be helpful for the managerial staff to make decisions about who to assign to work with who and at what projects. Besides, it could allow to get an impression about the person.

 

Task 2.

Match the personality types (1-8) to the presentation activities A-H in the table.

1. Extraverts - E                                        5. Thinking types - B

2. Introverts - D                                        6. Feeling types - F

3. Sensing types - G                                 7. Judging types - C

4. Intuitive types - A                                 8. Perceiving types - H

A

E

  • Present options
  • Let the audience make the conclusions
  • Don’t press for an immediate decision.
  • Give time for a decision and follow up.
  • Talk face-to-face
  • Present to groups and allow interaction
  • Respond to questions and comments
  • Emphasis action.
  • Include social interaction.

B

F

  • Be clear, down-to-earth and practical
  • Give plenty of facts, examples and evidence
  • Keep to the point
  • Give the details
  • Emphasize tangible short-term results
  • Check comprehension
  • Be friendly
  • Make the audience feel special
  • Begin with areas of agreement
  • Emphasize human benefits and happiness
  • Use personal examples
  • Give some personal details

C

G

  • Be punctual
  • Be well organized
  • Give a plan
  • Begin at the beginning and end at the end
  • Be decisive and give conclusions
  • Emphasize schedules, deadlines and timetables

 

  • Give the big picture, the broad implications and the long-term possibilities
  • Emphasize concepts and ideas
  • Don’t give too many details
  • Inspire
  • Emphasize the unusual and the innovative
  • Expect and welcome ideas, additions and changes

D

H

  • Get straight to the point
  • Be brief and concise, but present a complete argument
  • Present clear goals and objectives
  • Define terms and explain what you mean
  • Present all advantages and disadvantages
  • Emphasize rational processes and consequences
  • Give time for reflection both before and after the presentation, possibly by addressing issues in writing
  • Do one-to-one presentations
  • Stick to the business and don’t include social interaction

                Source: E.J. Williams. 2008. “Presentations in English.” Macmillan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Session 3

Preparation to Presentation Delivery

Answer the following questions.

What do you think ‘jump start’ means?

I guess that this phrase stands for the use of some special techniques that allow to get the audience interested or engaged in the presentation right away, from the very beginning of.

Why do you think a ‘jump start’ is effective? Can you think of any examples of a ‘jump start’?

I think that a “jump start” is effective because it lets the presenter save the time or even get less stressed about the fear of public speaking, which many people feel during the first minutes of performing because if one asks the audience a question or does something to attract their attention to the presented issue, it gets easier to continue. The examples include asking rhetorical questions or telling a life story at the beginning of the presentation.

 

Task 1.

Read the text. Write the techniques from the box below in gaps (1-7) in the text. One is extra.

What’s in it for me? (WIIFM),    Question and answer,       Meet the people,           Quotations,

Expert testimony or historical evidenceShocking statement or startling statistics, Enrolment questions

                                     Hot tips to ‘jump start’ your presentation

(1) …… Meet the people

(4) …… Quotations

Make your audience feel welcome as they arrive. Smile, make introductions, say a few words about yourself and ask some questions. Offer some refreshments. This technique helps to:

  • break the ice           
  • initiate dialogue
  • calm your nerves  create interaction
  • build a relationship

Find something original or exciting in newspapers, magazines, books, in-house literature, press releases or on the internet. Make it clear that you are using somebody else’s words. This technique helps to:

  • give another voice   create interest
  • build credibility

GOOD FOR: all types of presentation

(2) ….. What’s in it for me? (WIIFM)

(5) …… Shocking statement or startling statistics

Address the audience’s needs and concerns by telling them what benefits they will gain from listening to your presentation and use the word ‘you’ when you do this. This technique helps to:

  • focus on the needs of your audience
  • focus on benefits and not features
  • create desire and anticipation
  • raise expectations
  • build rapport

GOOD FOR: Sales pitches or presentations where you need to persuade or convince

Say something which is short and simple but unusual, surprising and/or provocative. Clarify your source. This techniques helps to:

  • get a high level of attention with a shock effect
  • give another voice

GOOD FOR: Most presentations but take care the shock effect does not alienate the audience

(3) ….. Enrolment questions

(6) ….. Expert testimony or historical evidence

Question the audience directly and get them to respond to you by answering ‘yes’ or ‘no’ or by raising hands. This technique helps to:

  • focus the audience on the subject
  • generate an interactive relationship
  • create dialogue
  • build interest

GOOD for: small to medium-sized audience

 Give objective evidence or facts from an authoritative source. This technique helps to:

  • give another voice
  • be convincing

GOOD FOR: Specialist presentations

                                                      Source (abridged): E.J. Williams. 2008. “Presentations in English.” Macmillan

 

 

POWERFUL TECHNIQUES

Read this extract from a presentation. The presenter works in the human resources department of a multinational manufacturer. The audience are potential recruits.

Summit Program (presentation transcript)

So, what is our second graduate program?

This is our high potential Summit Program that will take the best among you to the top, the very top. This is a very exciting option for those of you who are truly looking for variety, opportunity and challenge. The program enables you to take on three different assignments in three countries in three years and at the same time study for postgraduate management and language qualifications.

It’s a challenge, a real challenge. Your first assignment takes place in your home country, the second at our headquarters in San Diego and the third in another country where we expect you to learn a new language. Of course, we pay for all your relocation and study expenses. In fact, our support is very generous, very generous, indeed more generous than anything else you’ll find on the job market. But, in return, you have to be flexible, hard-working and self-motivated because this program is not a holiday but a boot camp. You will work, work, work and study, study, study. We test you and you test us. If you successfully finish the three assignments, you are not simply at the end of your training, but at the beginning of a fast, interesting and rewarding career path on your way to the top, the very top.

Let me give you an example of a Summit success story. This is Milena Gawczynski. She had the best degree of her year Warsaw University and a MBA that she completed during her year with us in San Diego. Her third year in the Summit Program was spent in Barcelona where she initiated a project to improve communications between our southern European manufacturing plants. She speaks fluent Polish, Russian, English and Spanish and is currently head of our Central European Services office in Prague.

As you can see our standards are much higher than other companies. Our assessment centre is far more rigorous than all the others presented to you today. That’s because we only want the best and of course you’ll get the best from us. Our ‘summiteers’ earn above average salaries and performance bonuses. Our mentoring scheme, international networks and development program are second to none. If it’s variety, opportunity and challenge you are looking for and you know you are the best, then, our Summit program is the one for you. It’s the only one that will take you to the top, the very top.

 

Task 2.

Read what six presenters said about some of their favorite technologies they learnt on a presentations seminar. Then answer the questions below.

  1. When we’re presenting, it can feel unnatural to say the same words over and over again. I’ve noticed that repetition really works when I listen to a presentation. It really helps to clarify and consolidate the key points. So, I try to use repetition myself. I think if you can get over ‘the unnatural’ feeling, it’s a really easy technique and it actually makes presenting in English less difficult as you don’t have to find different words for the same things.
  2. You can repeat a phase or a slogan like a mantra. Sometimes it’s this mantra that everyone remembers long after the presentation is over. I learnt that classical orators used this technique and I think one of the most famous modern examples is the Martin Luther King speech where he used the ‘I have a dream’ mantra. People even call it the ‘I have a dream’ speech. Mantra has to be precise, to the point and memorable. When you get the mantra right, everyone remembers it,
  3. I quite like using rhetorical questions as they create expectation and a feeling of dialogue. They’re also a tool for outlining or signposting the structure. You should use grammatically correct questions though if you’re presenting in another language, It’s no good asking a question if the audience don’t understand it or because you asked something too complex.
  4. I really remember the Rule of Three. It’s so easy. Good presentations often have lists with three different words, three identical words, three phrases or three sentences. Most experts attribute the Rule of Three to Aristotle’s Art of Rhetoric in which he referred to ‘three types of speeches’ and ‘three forms of proof’. Pythogoras said three was the ‘perfect number. Lists of three have a sense of completeness and research shows that listeners wait for and expect a third item in a list. As a presenter, I think it’s a fairly simple but highly effective technique.
  5. One of the things I like to do is to give real life examples or examples that everybody knows. I think this really ‘speaks’ to the audience as they remember things when they relate them to themselves, events or people. Examples bring things to life. It’s all about creating associations.
  6. A number of effective techniques we use today go right back to the classical writers on rhetoric. Take contrast, for example – if you compare one thing to another, you are making a contrast. ‘We are bigger than our competitors’ is an example. Another contrast technique is to use words that are opposites. Kennedy did it in that famous speech, ‘symbolizing an end not a beginning’ and ‘United, there is little we cannot do…. Divided, there is little we can do’. He used ‘not…but’ in the same speech too, ‘We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom’. From a language point of view, these are really not complicated techniques for non-native speakers to use.

 

Questions:

  1. 1.      Can you find examples of techniques 1-6 in the presentation transcript in task 1 ‘Powerful techniques’?

The presentation transcript in task one contains the following techniques:

-          repetition: “top, very top” and “work, work, work and study, study, study.”

-          the rule of three: “three countries, three assignments.”

-          the use of the real life examples as the speaker tells about a person who has already had such an experience.

-          Mantra: “to the top, the very top.”

  1. 2.      Do you already use any of techniques 1-6 in your presentation?

In my presentation, I use real life examples because I know that they improve the impact of the presentation. Also, I am going to ask rhetorical questions to get the audience interested. An example of this approach is asking the people who is familiar with the topic and who has some knowledge about it.

  1. 3.      Which new techniques would you be able to use to incorporate in your presentations?

From now on, I am going to use repetitions because I learned that they actually have a positive impact on the audience. Also, I will incorporate a mantra that will be memorable to the audience.

  1. 4.      Would you find any of the techniques difficult to use?

I do not think that any of these techniques is difficult to use. The only thing I would like to add is that the application of them requires time since some of them are sophisticated and require to be well thought-through to be memorable.

 

 

 

 

Individual Assignment

Choose an international organisation (company, university, nonprofit organisation) and give a structured Pecha Kucha presentation on its corporate culture. Use a full  range of presentation techniques. Attach the text of your presentation.

Oral presentation is assessed according to the following criteria

 

Poor

   OK

 Good

Wow!

                     Comments

Start

 

 

 

 

 

Signposting

 

 

 

 

 

Structure

 

 

 

 

 

Delivery

 

 

 

 

 

Visual aids

 

 

 

 

 

Techniques

 

 

 

 

 

Positive and dramatic

 

 

 

 

 

Love the audience

 

 

 

 

 

Dealing with questions

 

 

 

 

 

Finish